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has many uses in beekeeping:-

Compound Microscopes
Can be used for disease recognition and to see if bee semen contains live sperm. Pollen recognition is another important branch that sometimes requires the highest magnifications.
Binocular Microscopes
Have uses in dissection and instrumental insemination.
Microscopes with Micrometer Stages
In conjunction with graticule eyepieces are able to do many of the measuring jobs associated with morphometric analysis.
There are also
uses for magnifying hand lenses and loupes.
Thin sections
can be prepared with relatively crude home made microtomes.
I describe
a hotplate that I made from the remains of an old steam iron.
LED illumination
a new form of lighting that is suitable for microscopy and instrumental insemination will be described with manufacturing plans.
Optical theory
to suit stage one of the Irish beekeeping examinations will be prepared and published here to help those preparing for the Irish exams.


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Written... April 2000, Revised... 05 Oct 2001, Revised... 24 April 2002, Revised... 16 January 2003