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Fumigation Candles
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Special Candles
Originally Manufactured by Apex Enterprises

Mountaineering Candles burn with a brighter flame than pure beeswax, but the ingredients are expensive! They are light in weight for the light output produced.

I would recommend that you perform your own calibration tests for burning duration, under mountain conditions before embarking on any pioneering expeditions.

Fumigation Candles are made with a high sulphur content and produce 'Sulphur Dioxide' (SO2) when burnt! care must be taken so as not to expose yourself, pets or passers by to the fumes produced. Sulphur dioxide dissolves in water to form a mild acid known as 'sulphurous acid' (H2SO3) this can be further oxidised to produce 'sulphuric acid' (H2SO4). If the fumes are breathed then acids are formed in the moist linings of nose and airways, causing irritation. Similar irritation will occur on the moist surface of the eye.


NOTE the flame may be blue and difficult to see!

The third candle in the list is part of an experiment to produce an aerosol of sublimed sulphur particles in order to assess their effect against the varroa mite (Varroa Destructor) It is a conventional beeswax candle of small dimensions that will provide heat to sublime the sulphur using a rifle cartridge case as the chamber in which the sulphur is heated.

Candle DescriptionHeight mmWidth mmBurn Time   Code
Mountaineering Candle??350 MinsMC500
Fumigation Candle??4 HrsFUMCND
Varroa S2 Sublimation CandlenotyetdevelopedS2SUBL

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Originated... April/May 2000, Revised... 14 October 2003,

Candle favicon Coding Standard 2003 Issue 4