Earl's Hill Nature Reserve

Shropshire Botanical Society Newsletter 6 - Spring 2002 - page 17-23

Alex Lockton & Sarah Whild

Earl's Hill is without doubt still the finest of the Wildlife Trust's reserves. It was given to the then Conservation Trust by Dr & Mrs Chitty in 1962, although half of the total area (Pontesford Hill) was signed over to the Forestry Commission on a 999 year lease. The reserve is some 42 hectares of grassland and woodland, rising from 160m in the valley of the Habberley Brook to 320m at the summit.

An aerial photograph in Sinker's Flora (p. 167), taken in 1952, shows Earl's Hill at its finest. There was a small amount of woodland along the brook, and the neighbouring Oaks Wood was not yet felled and replanted, but the slopes and plateaux of Earl's Hill and Pontesford Hill were all closely grazed grassland. Since then Pontesford Hill and much of Oaks Wood has been planted up with conifers, and scrub has advanced up the eastern slope of Earl's Hill, changing its character significantly.

The oldest record for Earl's Hill is by Edward Williams, who recorded Luzula sylvatica, Great Wood-rush, in "woods about Ponsort Hill" in about 1800. This species is an indicator of ancient woodland, which lines the brook and extends along the escarpment of Oaks Wood to the east. L. sylvatica still occurs within the reserve, but must have been particularly abundant on the acid soils of Oaks Wood, while it is only frequent in the deeper soils on the lower slopes of the base-rich Earl's Hill.

William Leighton recorded seventeen species at Earl's Hill in the 1830s, and an additional six species at Lyd Hole. This is a waterfall along the Habberley Brook a short distance below the reserve, which was originally given to the Trust as part of the reserve, but was handed over to a local landowner, as it was an isolated portion. This may not have been a very wise decision, as it is quite a species-rich area.

Leighton's list for Earl's Hill is given below. He made a comment about the Urtica dioica, which on the summit of the hill was at the highest point where he had seen it. Among his records are some of the important plants of the site. The Sedum forsterianum is significant, as it is now considered a nationally scarce species. It grows on the scree on the east of the hill, where it is slowly being overwhelmed by woodland, and it formerly grew on the south side of the hill, too. The list is dominated by plants of U1 Festuca ovina-Agrostis capillaries-Rumex acetosella grassland, showing that the habitat then must have been very similar to that seen in the photograph of 1952. This U1 grassland is one of the key features of the reserve, but a lot has been lost in recent decades to scrub encroachment. It may soon be embarrassing to find that the best remaining areas of grassland are outside the reserve in the farmland.

 

Leighton's list for Earl's Hill

Urtica dioica Common Nettle
Moenchia erecta Upright Chickweed
Teesdalia nudicaulis Shepherd's Cress
Umbilicus rupestris Navelwort
Sedum telephium Orpine
Sedum forsterianum Rock Stonecrop
Alchemilla vulgaris agg. Lady's-mantle
Crataegus monogyna Hawthorn
Geranium lucidum Shining Crane's-bill
Galium saxatile Heath Bedstraw
Hypochaeris glabra Smooth Cat's-ear
Filago minima Small Cudweed
Solidago virgaurea Goldenrod
Carex muricata Prickly Sedge
Vulpia bromoides Squirrel-tail Fescue
Aira caryophyllea Silver Hair-grass
A. praecox Early Hair-grass

 

At Lyd Hole he recorded Hypericum androsaemum, Tutsan, Hypericum pulchrum, Slender St. John's-wort, Jasione montana, Sheep's-bit, Hieracium "murorum" & H. "sylvaticum" (hawkweeds), Carex pendula, Pendulous Sedge and Deschampsia flexuosa, Wavy Hair-grass.

The only other record for Earl's Hill listed in Leighton's Flora is by Thomas Bodenham, who found Hypericum humifusum, Trailing St. John's-wort, "at the foot of Pontesford Hill." Curiously, it had never been recorded there again until 1998, which shows that it is always worth looking for plants, even in well-recorded sites.

In 1888 Dr John Fraser of Wolverhampton found the uncommon hawkweed Hieracium lasiophyllum. This is known in Shropshire in only two sites, and has been recorded at Earl's Hill at many times since then. It grows on the east side, and may eventually be threatened by the advancement of the woodland.

The bryophyte records for Earl's Hill are superb. From 1891 to 1906 William Hamilton and Richard Benson made numerous surveys and recorded dozens of species. Their thorough survey was then repeated by Martha Newton, Francis Rose, Charles Sinker and Gordon Graham in the 1960s, again by Jeff Duckett and Martha Newton in the 1970s, and finally by Ron Porley in the 1980s. This gives us a superb account of the bryophytes and seems to show an increase in diversity. For instance, the rare moss Grimmia montana was only recorded in the 1980s. It occurs on and around the rock outcrops at the summit of the hill, which was apparently quite scrubbed-over in the 1960s, when the Wildlife Trust acquired the reserve. Charles Sinker's plan to burn off this gorse scrub was entirely successful, and since then sheep grazing has kept this area clear. So here we have an apparent example of conservation management achieving its full potential of creating the desired habitat through good management, and being rewarded by the arrival of a rare species. If there had been a Biodiversity Action Plan in the 1970s, this would have been heralded as a great accomplishment…

There are a few scattered records over the years. For instance, W. Yelland apparently recorded Vicia sylvatica, Wood Vetch, near Pontesford Hill in 1893. It has never been recorded in the vicinity again. A.G. Lawson first recorded the Ophioglossum vulgatum, Adder's-tongue, in 1894. This is associated with the richer grassland swards on the east side of the hill, but has almost vanished from the reserve. It is still abundant in the nearby farmland, however. Myosotis discolor, Changing Forget-me-not, was first seen here by Hamilton in 1896. This is another species typical of the U1 grassland.

Honor Leeke (later Mrs Pendlebury) wrote a very useful account of Earl's Hill in 1939, which lists, among other things, Orobanche rapum-genistae, Greater Broomrape, Genista tinctoria, Dyer's Greenweed, Menyanthes trifoliata, Bogbean, Lychnis flos-cuculi, Ragged Robin, and Kickxia elatine, Sharp-leaved Fluellen. These all appear to have been lost from the hill since then. One of Pendlebury's comments is quite intriguing. She points out that there is no Calluna vulgaris anywhere on Earl's Hill. This is in contrast to the comment in Sinker's Flora, page 98, where it is suggested that some of the ant hills "may even bear a clump of heather." In fact they don't - at least not any more.

The first record for Lathraea squamaria, Toothworth, was by J.B. Johnson in 1939. It seems to have migrated across the reserve since then, starting out at Earlsdale, to the north of the reserve, and moving southwards along the course of the Habberley Brook. It is also becoming more numerous - one of the species to benefit from the increase in woodland. In 1999 Richard Gulliver counted 55 spikes.

Charles Sinker found Geranium sanguineum, Bloody Crane's-bill, on the scree in 1958. That has now gone. So has his Dianthus deltoides, Maiden Pink, and Botrychium lunaria, Moonwort, both probably from the U1. However, Sinker was also the first to notice the importance of the woodland. At Earl's Hill there seem to be, remarkably, five different forms of W8 Fraxinus excelsior-Acer campestre-Mercurialis perennis woodland. In general this is not an uncommon woodland type in Shropshire, being the normal climax community on all the more base-rich dry soils. It can be very species-rich and of considerable conservation importance, or it can be pretty ordinary and uninteresting. What determines which it is are its age and its subcommunities.

At Earl's Hill there are two areas where the woodland can be said to be ancient and semi-natural, and therefore most worthy of conservation. These areas are the bottom of the valley and the top of the cliffs. In between, it is all secondary growth that has sprung up since the 1950s. At the bottom of the valley there is, as Sinker noticed, Circaea x intermedia, Upland Enchanter's-nightshade. This species is the hybrid between the ordinary Enchanter's-nightshade C. lutetiana and the Alpine species, C. alpina. It often occurs in the absence of its parents, but is thought to indicate areas where C. alpina was present in the past, when the climate was much colder. As it is now known to occur at the headwaters of the Habberley Brook, on the Stiperstones, this is probably the origin of the large population at Earl's Hill - although it may well have been there for hundreds, if not thousands, of years. Also in this woodland are some huge old trees of Tilia platyphyllos, Large-leaved Lime, and T. cordata, Small-leaved Lime, which are probably also ancient woodland indicators here. This low-lying damp woodland is of the W8f Allium ursinum and the W8c Deschampsia cespitosa subcommunities.

At the top of the cliffs are some more trees that have probably been there for a very long time, owing to their inaccessibility. These include Sorbus torminalis, Wild Service-tree, and Tilia platyphyllos, in what we believe is one of the few examples in Shropshire of the W8g Teucrium scorodonia subcommunity. In between the ancient woodlands at the top and bottom of the hill are secondary communities of varying age, including the W8a Glechoma hederacea and the W8d Hedera helix subcommunities of ash wood.

Conservation

It seems that Earl's Hill has several vegetation communities that give it its particular character, and also contain most of the species of interest. The primary ones are the areas of ancient woodland and the richer patches of grassland. A lot of Earl's Hill, particularly on the west side, is less interesting, but still valuable, U4 Festuca ovina grassland. The question for the Wildlife Trust is whether to attempt to control the advance of the woodland or not. On the one hand, it is generally desirable to allow areas of ancient woodland to expand, because this probably works better than creating entirely new woods. On the other hand, the area that it is expanding into is the area of most ecological importance for its grassland and bare scree. The Dianthus deltoides, Botrychium lunaria and Geranium sanguineum have already gone: the Sedum forsterianum, Ophioglossum vulgatum and Hieracium lasiophyllum may not be far behind. There isn't really anything in the woodland of equal value to replace these losses.

The solution, perhaps, should be to allow the woodland to advance so far and no further. Erect a fence and put a firm boundary to the woodland edge, cutting and/or grazing the grassland beyond. That will not be easy to do on the scree, but unfortunately that is where it is most needed.

Of course there are other places in the vicinity where semi-natural woodland could be re-established - in Oaks Wood, perhaps, or along the valley towards Lyd Hole Even on Pontesford Hill, where the grassland has largely been destroyed by the conifer plantations already. These areas are not currently in conservation management, but with earl's Hill being such an important site, perhaps they should be amongst the highest priorities for targeting conservation schemes or future land purchases.

 

Bibliography of Earl's Hill

Cameron, R.A.D. 1992. Watching Trees Grow: Succession in Shropshire Woods. Shropshire Naturalist 1(3): 23-27.

Cameron, R.A.D. 1980. Stand structure, species composition and succession in some Shropshire woods. Field Studies 5: 289-306.

Leeke, H.F. 1944. Plant Lore on Pontesford Hill. Transactions of the Caradoc and Severn Valley Field Club 11:3, 200-205.

Porley, R.D. 1992. The Bryophytes of Earl's Hill Nature Reserve, Shropshire. English Nature, Peterborough.

Sinker, C.A. 1964. Earl's Hill, Pontesford - the Trust's First Nature Reserve. Bulletin of the Shropshire Conservation Trust Ltd. 3: 1-3.

Sinker, C.A. 1987. Flora of Earl's Hill Nature Reserve. Report to the Shropshire Trust for Nature Conservation, Shrewsbury.

Whild, S.J. & Lockton, A.J. 1998. A botanical Survey of Earl's Hill Nature Reserve. Report to Shropshire Wildlife Trust by Whild Associates, Shrewsbury.


 

Species list for Earl's Hill

(Showing date of last record).

Lepidozia reptans 1986 Bazzania trilobata 1986 Calypogeia fissa 1986 C. muelleriana 1975 C. arguta 1986 Cephalozia bicuspidata 1986 C. lunulifolia 1969 Nowellia curvifolia 1997 Cephaloziella divaricata 1986 Barbilophozia floerkei 1978 B. attenuata 1986 B. barbata 1960 Lophozia ventricosa 1986 L. excisa 1986 Jungermannia atrovirens 1962 Marsupella emarginata var. emarginata 1975 Diplophyllum albicans 1986 Scapania compacta 1986 S. nemorea 1975 S. undulata 1975 Lophocolea bidentata 1998 L. heterophylla 1998 Chiloscyphus polyanthos 1986 Plagiochila porelloides 1986 P. asplenioides 1986 Radula complanata 1986 Ptilidium ciliare 1997 P. pulcherrimum 1969 Porella platyphylla 1998 P. cordaeana 1983 Frullania tamarisci 1975 F. dilatata 1997 Lejeunea cavifolia 1986 L. lamacerina 1960 Fossombronia pusilla 1986 Pellia epiphylla 1998 P. endiviifolia 1986 Aneura pinguis 1975 Metzgeria furcata 1998 Lunularia cruciata 1978 Conocephalum conicum 1997 Marchantia polymorpha 1998 Riccia sorocarpa 1997 Andreaea rupestris var. rupestris 1986 A. rothii ssp. rothii 1986 Tetraphis pellucida 1986 Pogonatum aloides 1997 P. urnigerum 1978 Polytrichum formosum 1986 P. commune 1978 P. piliferum 1998 P. juniperinum 1998 Atrichum undulatum 1986 Diphyscium foliosum 1960 Pleuridium acuminatum 1986 Pseudephemerum nitidum 1986 Ditrichum heteromallum 1986 Ceratodon purpureus 1998 Cynodontium bruntonii 1977 Dichodontium pellucidum 1978 Dicranella schreberiana 1986 D. rufescens 1978 D. heteromalla 1986 Dicranoweisia cirrata 1986 Dicranum scoparium 1998 D. majus 1986 D. fuscescens 1977 Campylopus fragilis 1975 C. flexuosus 1986 C. introflexus 1998 Leucobryum glaucum 1986 L. juniperoideum 1980 Fissidens viridulus 1986 F. bryoides 1997 F. exilis 1986 F. taxifolius 1998 Eucladium verticillatum 1969 Weissia controversa 1986 Tortella tortuosa 1998 Trichostomum brachydontium 1975 Pseudocrossidium hornschuchianum 1978 Bryoerythrophyllum recurvirostrum 1986 Barbula convoluta 1986 B. unguiculata 1986 Didymodon rigidulus 1975 D. insulanus 1986 Tortula muralis 1998 T. truncata 1997 Syntrichia princeps 1895 Schistidium rivulare 1986 S. apocarpum 1986 Grimmia montana 1998 G. pulvinata 1998 G. trichophylla 1997 Racomitrium aciculare 1986 R. heterostichum 1986 R. lanuginosum 1975 Ptychomitrium polyphyllum 1986 Funaria hygrometrica 1998 Orthodontium lineare 1986 Pohlia elongata ssp. elongata 1986 P. nutans 1986 P. melanodon 1983 Pohlia wahlenbergii 1982 Bryum capillare 1997 B. argenteum 1986 B. bicolor 1986 B. subapiculatum 1986 B. rubens 1986 Rhodobryum roseum 1986 Mnium hornum 1998 Rhizomnium punctatum 1998 Plagiomnium affine 1998 P. undulatum 1998 P. rostratum 1998 Aulacomnium androgynum 1986 Bartramia pomiformis 1986 Philonotis arnellii 1986 Amphidium mougeotii 1893 Zygodon viridissimus var. viridissimus 1986 Z. conoideus 1986 Orthotrichum lyellii 1986 O. affine 1997 O. rivulare 1986 O. stramineum 1997 O. diaphanum 1986 O. pulchellum 1997 Ulota crispa 1997 Fontinalis antipyretica 1978 Climacium dendroides 1975 Neckera complanata 1960 Homalia trichomanoides 1986 Thamnobryum alopecurum 1986 Heterocladium heteropterum 1975 Thuidium tamariscinum 1998 Palustriella commutata 1969 Cratoneuron filicinum 1975 Amblystegium serpens 1986 A. fluviatile 1986 A. tenax 1960 Leptodictyum riparium 1986 Calliergonella cuspidata 1998 Isothecium alopecuroides 1998 Homalothecium sericeum 1998 Brachythecium albicans 1986 B. rutabulum 1998 B. rivulare 1986 B. velutinum 1986 B. plumosum 1986 Scleropodium purum 1998 Cirriphyllum piliferum 1997 Rhynchostegium riparioides 1986 R. confertum 1986 Eurhynchium striatum 1998 E. pumilum 1975 E. praelongum 1998 E. hians 1986 E. crassinervium 1998 Rhynchostegiella teneriffae 1975 Plagiothecium denticulatum 1986 P. curvifolium 1986 P. succulentum 1986 P. nemorale 1997 P. undulatum 1997 Pseudotaxiphyllum elegans 1986 Taxiphyllum wissgrillii 1960 Pleurozium schreberi 1998 Hypnum cupressiforme 1998 H. lacunosum 1986 H. resupinatum 1986 H. andoi 1997 H. jutlandicum 1986 Ctenidium molluscum 1975 Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus 1986 R. squarrosus 1998 R. loreus 1986 Hylocomium splendens 1998 Equisetum fluviatile 1987 E. palustre 1998 Ophioglossum vulgatum 1998 Botrychium lunaria 1960 Polypodium vulgare 1998 Pteridium aquilinum 1998 Phyllitis scolopendrium 1960 Asplenium adiantum-nigrum 1998 A. trichomanes ssp. quadrivalens 1998 Athyrium filix-femina 1998 Polystichum setiferum 1998 P. aculeatum 1998 Dryopteris filix-mas 1998 D. affinis 1998 D. dilatata 1998 Blechnum spicant 1969 Pseudotsuga menziesii 1980 Larix decidua 1978 Pinus sylvestris 1994 Taxus baccata 1998 Caltha palustris 1998 Aconitum napellus 1975 Anemone nemorosa 1998 Ranunculus acris 1998 R. repens 1998 R. bulbosus 1998 R. auricomus 1998 R. flammula 1998 R. ficaria ssp. ficaria 1998 Meconopsis cambrica 1998 Chelidonium majus 1941 Fumaria officinalis 1941 Ulmus glabra 1998 Urtica dioica 1998 Fagus sylvatica 1998 Quercus petraea 1998 Q. x rosacea 1998 Q. robur 1998 Betula pendula 1998 Alnus glutinosa 1998 Corylus avellana 1998 Chenopodium bonus-henricus 1941 Montia fontana 1995 Moehringia trinervia 1998 Stellaria media 1998 S. pallida 2000 S. holostea 1998 S. graminea 1998 S. uliginosa 1998 Cerastium fontanum 1998 C. glomeratum 1998 C. semidecandrum 1998 Moenchia erecta 1998 Sagina procumbens 1998 S. apetala 1995 Lychnis flos-cuculi 1966 Silene dioica 1998 Dianthus deltoides 1958 Persicaria hydropiper 1998 Rumex acetosella 1998 R. acetosa 1998 R. crispus 1998 R. conglomeratus 1994 R. sanguineus 1994 R. obtusifolius 1998 Hypericum tetrapterum 1939 H. humifusum 1998 Tilia platyphyllos 1998 T. cordata 1998 Malva moschata 1945 Viola riviniana 1998 V. reichenbachiana 1998 Bryonia dioica 1904 Salix caprea 1969 S. cinerea ssp. oleifolia 1998 Alliaria petiolata 1998 Arabidopsis thaliana 1896 Cardamine pratensis 1998 C. flexuosa 1998 C. hirsuta 1998 Erophila verna 1998 Teesdalia nudicaulis 2000 Lepidium heterophyllum 1941 Calluna vulgaris 1969 Vaccinium myrtillus 1998 Primula vulgaris 1998 P. veris 1994 Lysimachia nemorum 1998 Anagallis tenella 1941 Ribes uva-crispa 1994 Umbilicus rupestris 1998 Sedum telephium 1966 S. forsterianum 1998 Chrysosplenium oppositifolium 2000 C. alternifolium 2000 Filipendula ulmaria 1998 Rubus idaeus 1998 R. fruticosus agg. 1998 R. ulmifolius 1975 R. vestitus 1975 R. diversus 1975 R. raduloides 1985 Potentilla erecta 1998 P. anglica 1966 P. reptans 1998 P. sterilis 1998 Fragaria vesca 1994 Geum urbanum 1998 Agrimonia eupatoria 1966 Alchemilla filicaulis 1966 Aphanes australis 1998 Rosa arvensis 1998 R. canina agg. 1998 R. canina 1961 R. x dumalis 1997 R. caesia ssp. glauca 1997 Prunus spinosa 1998 P. domestica ssp. insititia 1978 Malus sylvestris 1998 M. domestica 1998 Sorbus aucuparia 1998 S. torminalis 1998 Crataegus monogyna 1998 Lotus corniculatus 1998 L. pedunculatus 1966 Vicia cracca 1987 V. sylvatica 1893 V. sepium 1998 V. sativa 1998 V. sativa ssp. nigra 1939 Lathyrus pratensis 1998 Medicago lupulina 1995 Trifolium repens 1998 T. dubium 1998 T. pratense 1998 T. striatum 1988 Laburnum anagyroides 1941 Cytisus scoparius 1998 Genista tinctoria 1939 Ulex europaeus 1998 U. gallii 1998 Epilobium montanum 1998 E. obscurum 1966 Chamerion angustifolium 1998 Circaea lutetiana 1998 C. x intermedia 1998 Cornus sanguinea 1998 Euonymus europaeus 1969 Ilex aquifolium 1998 Mercurialis perennis 1998 Polygala vulgaris 1995 Acer campestre 1998 A. pseudoplatanus 1998 Oxalis acetosella 1998 Geranium sanguineum 1977 G. columbinum 1941 G. dissectum 1998 G. molle 1998 G. lucidum 1998 G. robertianum 1998 Erodium cicutarium 1941 Hedera helix 1998 Sanicula europaea 1998 Chaerophyllum temulum 1966 Anthriscus sylvestris 1998 Conopodium majus 1998 Pimpinella saxifraga 1998 Silaum silaus 1961 Angelica sylvestris 1998 Heracleum sphondylium 1998 Solanum dulcamara 1998 Menyanthes trifoliata 1941 Symphytum officinale 1939 Myosotis arvensis 1998 M. discolor 1998 Cynoglossum officinale 1941 Stachys officinalis 1994 S. sylvatica 1998 S. palustris 1941 Lamiastrum galeobdolon montanum 1999 L. purpureum 1994 Galeopsis tetrahit 1998 Teucrium scorodonia 1998 Ajuga reptans 1998 Glechoma hederacea 1998 Prunella vulgaris 1998 Clinopodium vulgare 1998 Thymus polytrichus 1998 Mentha aquatica 1987 Plantago major 1998 P. lanceolata 1998 Fraxinus excelsior 1998 Syringa vulgaris 1941 Ligustrum vulgare 1998 Verbascum thapsus 1998 Kickxia elatine 1939 Digitalis purpurea 1998 Veronica serpyllifolia 1998 V. officinalis 1998 V. chamaedrys 1998 V. montana 1998 V. beccabunga 1998 V. arvensis 1998 V. persica 1987 V. hederifolia ssp. lucorum 1998 Euphrasia officinalis agg. 1987 Lathraea squamaria 1999 Orobanche rapum-genistae 1939 Campanula rotundifolia 1998 Jasione montana 1998 Sherardia arvensis 1941 Galium odoratum 1966 G. palustre 1998 G. verum 1998 G. saxatile 1998 G. aparine 1998 Cruciata laevipes 1994 Sambucus nigra 1998 Viburnum opulus 1994 Lonicera periclymenum 1998 Adoxa moschatellina 1998 Valerianella locusta 1941 V. officinalis 1998 Carlina vulgaris 1995 Arctium minus 1998 Cirsium vulgare 1998 C. palustre 1994 C. arvense 1998 Centaurea nigra 1998 Lapsana communis 1998 Hypochaeris radicata 1998 H. glabra 1966 Leontodon autumnalis 1987 Mycelis muralis 1998 Taraxacum officinale agg. 1998 T. laevigatum agg. 1966 T. spectabile agg. 1966 Crepis capillaris 1998 Pilosella officinarum 1998 Hieracium acuminatum 2001 H. lasiophyllum 2001 Filago minima 2000 Solidago virgaurea 1841 Bellis perennis 1998 Achillea ptarmica 1966 A. millefolium 1998 Senecio jacobaea 1998 S. aquaticus 1966 S. vulgaris 1994 S. sylvaticus 1998 Arum maculatum 1998 Juncus articulatus 1998 J. acutiflorus 1966 J. inflexus 1998 J. effusus 1998 J. conglomeratus 1966 Luzula pilosa 1987 L. sylvatica 1998 L. campestris 1998 L. multiflora 1966 Carex muricata ssp. lamprocarpa 1998 C. remota 1998 C. ovalis 1998 C. pendula 1998 C. sylvatica 1998 C. flacca 1998 C. panicea 1998 C. caryophyllea 1994 C. nigra 1998 Milium effusum 1998 Festuca gigantea 1998 F. rubra 1998 F. ovina 1998 Lolium perenne 1998 Vulpia bromoides 1966 Cynosurus cristatus 1998 Briza media 1966 Poa annua 1998 P. trivialis 1998 P. humilis 1970 P. nemoralis 1998 Dactylis glomerata 1998 Glyceria fluitans 1998 Melica uniflora 1994 Arrhenatherum elatius 1998 Trisetum flavescens 1966 Deschampsia cespitosa 1998 D. flexuosa 1987 Holcus lanatus 1998 H. mollis 1987 Aira caryophyllea 1841 A. praecox 1998 Anthoxanthum odoratum 1998 Agrostis capillaris 1998 A. stolonifera 1998 A. canina 1966 Bromopsis ramosa 1998 Brachypodium sylvaticum 1998 Elymus caninus 1966 Colchicum autumnale 1998 Hyacinthoides non-scripta 1998 Allium ursinum 1998 Tamus communis 1987 Listera ovata 1966 Dactylorhiza fuchsii 1994 Orchis mascula 1966

 

Plan of Earl's Hill

 

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