1776 Clarifications

Original author: Hank Burkhalter. Modified by Richard Wein. Last updated December 20, 1999.

These clarifications are intended for the campaign game, but many are also relevant to scenarios.

Players can, of course, use any interpretations and house rules that they agree between themselves. These are intended to provide a base set to work from. They are based on the 2nd Edition of the rules, including the Q&As at the back. Where the Q&As conflict with the main body of the rules, the Q&As are assumed to take precedence.


  1. There are two types of class 3 hexside: class 3 river/lake and class 3 coastal. (There is no distinction between rivers and lakes.)
    1. A class 3 river/lake hexside is represented by a thin gray line on a pale blue background. There may be some yellow and other colors along the hexside too, and the map is unclear in some cases. Examples of class 3 river/lake hexsides: FF30/GG31, MM35/NN35, A12/B13, D14/E14. DDD29/EEE29 and Newburyport/Portsmouth are NOT class 3 river/lake; they are class 1 river hexsides. If players want a method for resolving disputes over ambiguous map features, they could refer to the latest map for the Above The Fields 1776 program.
    2. A class 3 coastal hexside is represented by a thick gray line, which MAY extend over land as well as pale blue sea. Examples: AAA43/BBB44 and FFF48/FFF49 are class 3 coastal hexsides. Bateaus may not enter or be built in these hexsides. The thick lines which separate pale blue hexes from dark blue hexes are NOT class 3 coastal, and may not be used for movement.
    3. Naval and bateau movement are not allowed between two class 3 hexsides where there is a gap in the hexgrid. Example: movement from RRR50/RRR51 to RRR51/SSS51 is not allowed.
  2. Half hexes are playable.
  3. The 4 hexsides of Lake Ontario and the St Lawrence River which coincide with the map edge are all playable class 3 river/lake hexsides.
  4. Along the Canada-Middle States border, divided hexes are considered to lie on the side containing more than 50% of the area, so MMM35, NNN37 and OOO39 are in the Middle States. The border then extends along the St Lawrence River to the western map edge.
  5. Units may move through (and remain in) all-mountain hexes.
  6. Land movement across a hexside is not allowed if the only land terrain along the hexside is yellow.
  7. The hex containing Portsmouth (New Hampshire) is divided into two pieces of land. A unit which starts the turn in the hex may move to any of the three adjacent hexes. However, a unit may not make a move such as KKK46 - Portsmouth - MMM47 in a single turn. Also, a unit which debarks in the port may not move to MMM47 in the same turn. Note: some versions of the Above The Fields 1776 program's map show this hex as a single piece of land. When using such a version, the Portsmouth/MM47 hexside is impassable.

Automatic Elimination (= Automatic Victory = AV)

  1. To count for an AV, all of the attackers (including any supply unit to be used in the AV) must have begun their movement (regular or forced march) in the same hex and move as a stack to the AV hex. Other friendly units already in the target AV hex may not join the moving stack. (This differs from AvalonCon ruling.)
  2. Units which start their movement in the same hex are NOT considered to be a single stack for AV if some start inside a fort and some outside. Units which debark from multiple fleets and/or bateaus are still considered a single stack, providing they have remained together from the start of the movement phase. However, units which start the movement phase embarked on a fleet are never considered to be in the same stack as units starting on land (even if they start in the same port hex).
  3. When a stack with a supply unit is AVed, the supply unit is considered not to have been used, and is therefore captured.
  4. A stack MAY conduct an AV in the hex where it starts the movement phase.
  5. A stack MAY split after conducting an AV.
  6. A stack MAY conduct an AV during a forced march. However, if it suffers a 1/2E result, this is applied BEFORE making the forced march, which means the AV may no longer be possible.
  7. A stack does not expend an additional 2mp for an AV unless it is able to move beyond the AV hex. Example: 12 BRs attempt a two-hex forced march through clear terrain, intending to AV a single RM in the first hex. They roll on the 4mp column (2 for terrain + 2 for an AV). The die roll is 3, so they're halved to 6 BRs and gain only 3mp. They pay 1mp to enter the first hex, where they AV the RM, but they are unable to move to the next hex, so they fail to expend the remaining 2mp, and are eliminated.
  8. All units in an AVing stack that wish to continue moving after the AV must pay the additional 2mp, including non-combat units.
  9. A unit may AV after debarkation from a fleet or bateau, regardless of whether it debarks in a port hex. On the other hand, a unit may not AV and then embark in the same movement phase.


  1. Units outside a friendly fort (including one just captured) have the option to enter the fort at the end of ANY combat phase in which they were involved in combat (and they may take non-combat units with them). Other than this, units may only be moved into or out of a fort during their own movement phase. (In addition, reinforcements and replacements may be placed inside a fort when permitted by the placement rules.)
  2. Defending units in a fort may NOT continue combat if the attacker chooses not to continue.
  3. Non-combat units outside a fort may be captured, even if there are still friendly combat units inside the fort.
  4. A supply unit inside a fort MAY be used to supply friendly units outside the fort.
  5. If an attacker eliminates all defending units outside a fort, and then proceeds to attack the fort in the same combat phase, this is treated as a continuation of the same combat for supply purposes. (Note: if the defender used a supply unit outside the fort to supply the combat there, that supply unit will have been eliminated, and he cannot now use another supply unit inside the fort to supply his defense of the fort.)
  6. A magazine in a hex with a friendly fort is always considered to be inside the fort, even if the fort was built later. A magazine in a besieged fort may not supply units in another hex. Nor may units in a besieged fort be supplied by a magazine in another hex.
  7. A fort is considered 'besieged' if there are enemy combat units in the same hex, regardless of whether there are also friendly units outside the fort.


  1. All units in a hex with a friendly entrenchment counter must be considered entrenched.
  2. Entrenchments are built at the START of the movement phase, so you can't AV an enemy unit or dismantle a fort in a hex and then build an entrenchment in that hex in the same turn.
  3. Entrenched units may INITIATE combat in their own combat phase, but not in the enemy combat phase. They may CONTINUE combat in the enemy combat phase, if the original attacker chooses not to continue. In both of these cases, they remain entrenched, but they don't get any die roll modifier from the entrenchment while attacking. If, later in the same combat phase, they become the defenders, then they DO receive the die roll modifier.


  1. A bateau may not end its movement in a hexside unless at least one of the two adjacent hexes contains some playable land. Examples: a bateau may not end its movement in hexside HH31/II31 or ZZ40/AAA41.
  2. What happens when an enemy naval unit enters and remains in a hexside occupied by friendly bateaus? While the bateaus do not have to leave the hexside, neither may they transport from or ferry on the hexside as long as the enemy naval unit remains there.
  3. Bateaus may not be built in a hexside containing an enemy fleet.
  4. A bateau MAY be used as a transport or ferry in the same movement phase it's captured.
  5. A friendly bateau may be voluntarily destroyed unless enemy units occupy BOTH of the adjacent hexes.
  6. When creating bateaus (and a supply unit) from a magazine by the 'exchange' method (CSG VI.B.2), the supply unit may not move or support combat in the same player segment. A player may use the 'exchange' method even if there are insufficient counters available. In this case, he simply takes as many counters as are available.
  7. You may use a bateau for transport or ferrying and then voluntarily destroy it later in the same movement phase. However, if you wish to re-use the counter to build another bateau elsewhere, you must destroy it at the START of your movement phase.

Forced Marches

  1. Forced marches are completely independent of regular movement, so, when conducting a forced march, a unit has no memory of where it started its regular movement or what it did during regular movement. EXCEPTION: units which move by bateau or sea transport may not make a forced march in the same turn (even if they debark in a port hex).
  2. A unit may not make a forced march from a hex containing enemy combat units (unless all those units are inside a fort).
  3. When declaring a forced march attempt, the player must specify the exact route to be taken to the destination hex (if more than one is possible). All units moving by forced march from a given start hex to a given destination hex MUST move by the same route. After rolling the die, the units must move as far as possible along that route. A unit may not change to a different route if it receives a lesser number of movement points.
  4. A stack which is unable to expend all the movement points it gained in a forced march attempt may still move as far as possible before being eliminated, for example in order to conduct an AV or to capture a non-combat unit.
  5. Movement allowance is irrelevant during forced marches. Ignore the phrase '(with the same movement allowance)' in rule AGOR III.E.

Control and Area Status

  1. BRs in Canada do not affect the area status of New England or the Middle States (except in so far as they determine whether Quebec and Montreal are British controlled).
  2. Units on board a fleet always count as being 'at sea', even if the fleet is up a river or in a port. So TMs which end a quarter in this situation are eliminated; CAs and BRs in this situation do not effect area status.
  3. If Quebec and Montreal are not both controlled, then the British cannot be considered to control all strategic towns in New England or the Middle States, for any of the following purposes:
    1. Area Status
    2. Winter Reduction
    3. Victory Conditions (including Minimum Victory Conditions)
    4. French Intervention
    5. American Spring Supply (if all strategic towns in the area are controlled but Quebec or Montreal is not, the supply unit may be placed within one hex of any strategic town in the area, just as for CAs and RMs).

Placement of New Units

  1. All British reinforcements ('A' through 'F') arriving in one turn must enter together at the same hex. They MUST arrive in the turn indicated on the Time Record Chart, unless none of the possible entry ports is controlled.
  2. British reinforcements 'A' can enter at sea lane hex TT 40 or any sea lane hex south of TT40. The ground units can be divided between the two fleets in any way the British player chooses, subject to transport capacity.
  3. Reinforcements are considered to arrive in play before the start of the movement phase, so they may use sea or bateau movement in the turn they arrive. They do not pay any movement points to enter the game. (Basic Game Rule VI does not apply to the Campaign Game.)
  4. New British units may only enter at Halifax if it's controlled, i.e. it contains a debarked BR strength point.
  5. The British 2BR replacements which can arrive in any controlled port must both arrive in the same port. So must the 2 British supply units (but not necessarily in the same port as the 2BRs).
  6. Variable fleets which happen to arrive in the same interphase as each other do NOT have to appear in the same transitional box.
  7. When placing CAs, RMs, TMs and/or American supply units within a single strategic area, they may be divided between any number of eligible hexes.
  8. New units are free to arrive in an enemy-occupied hex, even if there is a non-enemy-occupied hex available. They suffer no penalty for doing so. Exception: TMs may not be placed in an enemy-occupied strategic town hex unless it is British controlled.
  9. The only time a TM may be placed ADJACENT to a strategic town hex (instead of IN it), is when the British control no strategic towns in the area AND all strategic towns in the area are enemy-occupied. In this case, the TM may NOT be placed directly in a strategic town hex, but it MAY be placed in an enemy-occupied hex adjacent to a strategic town, even if a non-enemy-occupied hex is available.
  10. Variable British Garrison Requirements (CSGOR V). A strategic town which contains one or more BR strength points, but not enough to meet the garrison requirement (i.e. is 'undergarrisoned'), is considered to be British controlled for ALL purposes EXCEPT determining the number of CAs, RMs and TMs that may be placed in the area. So CAs and RMs may not normally be placed at an undergarrisoned town. However, if ALL strategic towns in an area are occupied by BRs, but one (or more) of them is undergarrisoned, then CAs and RMs MAY be placed within one hex of an undergarrisoned town (since there would otherwise be nowhere to place them). Note: if all strategic towns in New England (or the Middle States) are occupied by BRs but Quebec or Montreal is not controlled, then CAs and RMs may be placed within one hex of ANY strategic town in the area, regardless of whether it's undergarrisoned.
  11. New units (of whatever nationality) may arrive INSIDE a besieged friendly fort in a port hex IF the port is not blockaded. A port is considered blockaded if any enemy fleet (TR or BF) occupies the port entrance hexside, regardless of the presence of friendly fleets. New units may be placed OUTSIDE a besieged friendly fort, regardless of whether the port is blockaded.
  12. In a face-to-face game, the sequence of play during an Interphase is:
    1. American player adjusts RMs and places CAs;
    2. British player adjusts TMs;
    3. American player places supply units;
    4. British player places supply units and BRs;
    5. British player rolls for arriving VF (Variable Force) units;
    6. American player rolls for arriving VF units;
    7. British player places arriving VF units;
    8. American player places arriving VF units;
    9. Both players roll for departure of VF units already in play (the order is immaterial, since there are no decisions to be made).

Winter Restrictions

  1. During winter, combat is limited to a maximum of two rounds per hex per combat phase, even if a magazine is available. If Player A attacks for two rounds, Player B may not continue combat, even if he chose to defend unsupplied.
  2. All class 1, 2 and 3 river/lake hexsides (but not class 3 coastal) in Canada, New England, and the Middle States are considered frozen in winter. Bateaus and TR fleets may not enter or leave frozen hexsides. EXCEPTION: a TR may still move from a port to its associated port entrance hexside (and vice versa), and from a port entrance hexside to any adjacent class 3 coastal hexside or sea lane hex (and vice versa). This means that Quebec, New London, New Haven, New York, Wilmington (Delaware) and Philadelphia are inaccessible to TRs in winter, but other ports can be accessed normally. Movement of BFs is entirely unaffected by winter.
  3. Hexsides lying exactly on the border between the Middle States and the South Central are frozen. This includes hexsides OO32/PP33 and OO33/PP33, but not hexside OO33/PP34 or any hexside south of it.
  4. A TR in a frozen hexside may still embark/debark units.
  5. Bateaus may still be built in frozen hexsides.
  6. A unit that debarks in a northern port during winter has its movement allowance halved twice, once for winter and once for sea movement, regardless of where it started the turn (a unit with 7mp is reduced to 1mp). A unit that debarks in a southern port during winter has its movement allowance halved only once, regardless of where it started the turn.
  7. A unit may not make a forced march out of the Middle States in winter, nor may it enter any hex of the Middle States during a forced march.

French Intervention

  1. The American player rolls for French intervention at the start of each TURN, i.e. before the British player segment.
  2. The two French regular fleets arrive on the board at the start of an American player segment. They must both arrive in the same turn and in the same hex (or both in the West Indies).
  3. Rule CSG VIII.C.3 says that, on intervention, the French receive a supply unit in the West Indies which may be embarked immediately. Since the French fleets are already fully loaded, this supply unit can only be embarked if another unit is debarked
  4. French mandatory withdrawal due to sinking of a French fleet (CSG VIII.C.2):
    1. If French forces have to withdraw, the French player must handle this in the same way that the British player handles matching of forces in the West Indies, as described below. (Ignore what the rule book says about 'the fewest turns from embarkation'.)
    2. The French player continues to roll for appearance and removal of his variable fleet, and all the usual WI rules remain in force.
    3. If a fleet (variable or repaired) appears with land forces on board, it must be placed in the southernmost transitional box and moved to the WI as quickly as possible.
    4. If, at any time after withdrawal begins, there are no French fleets in play, all French land forces in North America are eliminated. (Damaged fleets and unavailable variable fleets are not considered to be in play.)
    5. Once all French land forces in play have been debarked in the WI, remaining French fleets are free to operate normally.
    6. For purposes of this rule, 'land forces' means strength points and artillery only.
  5. When building or reducing a magazine, the American player must retain the same nationality. For example, two French supply units must build a French magazine; an American magazine must be reduced to an American supply unit, etc. When building a magazine from one French supply unit and one American one, the player may choose the nationality of the magazine. As far as forts, entrenchments and bateaus are concerned, no French counters are available, so American ones are always used, regardless of the nationality of the units creating them.

West Indies

  1. All land units and all BFs sent to the WI must remain there for 3 turns. However, if French forces are initially placed in the WI, they don't have to remain for 3 turns and the British don't have to match them, unless they debark any units there. In that case, the BF in question and the units it debarked must remain until the 3rd turn after debarkation, and the British must match that BF and its SPs.
  2. The British must match the French BFs and SPs only while a French BF is in the WI. Once a French BF arrives in the WI, the British must match ALL French BFs and SPs there, whether embarked or debarked.
  3. In any turn when there are unmatched French forces in the WI, the British player must, at the start and end of his movement phase, calculate the minimum number of turns it would take to match all the French forces currently there. He may move his forces in any way he likes, providing that this minimum number of turns is lower at the end of his movement phase than it was at the start. In calculating the minimum number of turns, the British player should assume that all enemy forces will neither move nor attack. (Obviously this is an unrealistic assumption, but the British player cannot be expected to allow for every possible move that the American player might make.) He must allow for delays caused by having to stop on entering an enemy-occupied hex or hexside. But he may not allow extra time for bypassing an enemy force if it would be quicker to move through the enemy force. He must take into account the possibility of AVing any obstructing enemy forces.


  1. Each port has an entrance hexside, marked by an arrowhead on the printed map, or by a blue spot in the Above The Fields 1776 program. The port entrance hexside does NOT represent the port. It is a normal class 3 hexside (river/lake or coastal) which a fleet must pass through when entering or leaving the port.
  2. When a fleet is in port, its counter is placed in the port hex, and it's irrelevant which way the counter's arrow points. When a fleet is located in one of the hexsides of the port hex (possibly the port entrance hexside), its counter is placed in an adjacent hex (never in the port hex), with the counter's arrow pointing to the appropriate hexside.
  3. A fleet may only enter or leave a port via the port entrance hexside. It costs no movement points to move a fleet from the port entrance hexside to the port, or vice versa, but this can only be done during the owner's movement phase. EXCEPTION: a fleet is automatically moved from the port to the port entrance hexside if, at any time, the port hex contains enemy combat units but no friendly combat units.
  4. A fleet in a port entrance hexside is treated the same as a fleet in any other class 3 hexside. It may ferry, engage in combat, etc. It may embark and debark units from the two adjacent hexes (which may include the port hex), but it does so at the appropriate class 3 hexside cost, not at the port cost. If it wishes to embark units at the port cost, it must first enter the port, and may then not embark units until the following turn.
  5. A fleet MAY enter a port entrance hexside containing an enemy fleet (despite rule CSG IX.B.1.d.2.b), but must end its movement there. This means a port can be 'blockaded' by leaving a fleet in the port entrance hexside. Any enemy fleet entering or leaving the port would have to stop in the port entrance hexside and undergo possible attack from the blockading fleet in the following player segment.
  6. A fleet may never enter a port containing an enemy fleet.
  7. A fleet may not remain in a port which is occupied by enemy combat units with no friendly combat units, but it may enter such a port if it immediately debarks a combat unit.
  8. Bateaus may NOT enter ports. Therefore there's no problem with placing a bateau counter in a port hex, providing it's understood that the bateau is actually located in one of the adjacent hexsides (as indicated by the counter's arrow).

Naval Transport

  1. The first hex of a port debarkation does not cost the landing units 1mp; it is 'free'. A unit which embarks and debarks in the same turn may not move after debarkation unless it embarked AND debarked in non-enemy-occupied ports.
  2. Passengers on board a fleet may not transfer directly to another fleet, whether at sea or in port. When two fleets are stacked together, their passengers should be kept separate. A land unit may not debark and then embark again in the same turn (whether on a fleet or bateau).
  3. A fleet may not embark/debark after entering a hexside containing an enemy fleet. However, a fleet which starts its movement phase in a hexside with an enemy fleet MAY embark/debark in that hexside.
  4. A fleet may ferry and embark/debark units in the same turn.
  5. Units may embark/debark INSIDE a besieged friendly fort in a port hex ONLY IF the fleet is in the port. Units may freely embark/debark OUTSIDE a fort in a port hex, whether the fleet is in the port or not. The embarkation/debarkation cost depends only on the location of the fleet (in or out of the port), and not on the location of the land units (in or out of the fort).
  6. Units embarking/debarking in an enemy-occupied hex must always pay the +5mp cost, even if all the enemy units are inside a fort. However, land units debarking from a fleet in port MAY move after debarkation if all enemy units in the hex are inside a fort (regardless of whether there are also friendly besieging units in the hex).
  7. If using the Variable Transport Capacities rule (CSGOR IV), an overloaded French fleet must debark at least one passenger as soon as it enters any uncontrolled port. If it doesn't have enough movement points remaining to do so, it may not enter the port. A fleet in the West Indies may choose to remain outside the port, providing it does not want to embark/debark any units.
  8. When moving to Halifax or the West Indies from another box of the OBM chart, a fleet is assumed to have sufficient movement points remaining to debark units. When moving to Halifax from the map, a fleet may debark units only if it has sufficient movement points remaining, after expending 1mp to leave the map.
  9. If you debark units from a fleet as 2 separate stacks, then the fleet must pay the debark cost twice. For example, a British TR with 15 BRs on board is located in a port containing an unentrenched RM. 6 BRs debark and AV the RM. They cannot move any further that turn, as they debarked in an enemy-occupied port. The remaining 9 BRs then debark and may continue moving. The TR must spend a total of 15 movement points, 10 to debark the first stack (in an enemy-occupied port) and 5 to debark the second stack (in a non-enemy-occupied port).
  10. When 2 fleets are stacked together, their transport capacity is still kept separate. For example, 2 British BFs (capacity 3 each) cannot transport 3 supply units (transport cost 2 each, assuming you're using the Variable Transport Capacities rule). This applies to bateaus too.

Naval Combat

  1. A D-1 result equals 3 months, and a D-2 equals 6 months. A unit which suffers a D-1 in March comes back in June.
  2. If a variable fleet is damaged, continue rolling for call-up and removal while it's being repaired. When repairs are finished, it only reappears on the map if it is currently called-up.
  3. No combat is allowed in any part of the OBM chart.
  4. The defender may NOT initiate naval combat.


  1. House rule. Replace the At Start British magazine in Boston with a supply unit. This lessens the chance the British will go for a turn one win by attacking the American army right off from Boston, making for a quick, dull, game.
  2. Each player may use only one supply unit per hex per combat phase. Example: Player A attacks Player B, combat lasts 5 rounds. Player B now may continue combat if he wants; if he does, each player must continue using the same supply unit (if any). At the end of combat each player will lose only one supply unit. (This differs from AvalonCon ruling.)
  3. A player may capture non-combat units during his own movement phase or at the end of any player segment.
  4. For purposes of Winter Reduction, CAs in the West Indies and at sea are treated as being in Canada. So all of these are added to make one total, and losses are rounded down only once. If using the Variable Winter Reduction rule (CSGOR VI), CAs in the West Indies or at sea suffer 50% reduction in 1779, the same as in Canada.
  5. Whenever the rules (or these clarifications) use the term 'enemy-occupied', this should be taken to mean 'containing an enemy strength point'. So, for example, there is no extra cost to debark in a port containing only an enemy artillery unit.
  6. Campaign Game Victory Conditions. To win, the British must control 20 strategic towns at the start of a month, and then hold 20 strategic towns (not necessarily the same ones) at the end of that month.
  7. In face-to-face games, the counter mix provided with the game imposes an upper limit on the number of counters that may be in play at one time. This applies to ALL types of counters.


PBeM Campaign Game Conventions

The following conventions are for use in conjunction with Hank Burkhalter's Above The Fields 1776 PBEM program.

  1. Where the program's map differs from the physical mapboard, the program's map is used. There are several versions of the program's map in existence, so players should be careful to make sure they both have the same one. Note the following features in the latest version of the program's map:
    1. Various sea lane hexes are marked with their distance (in movement points) from certain ports, or from the 'North', 'East' or 'South' off-board boxes.
    2. The furthest hexes that can be reached by a bateau from Quebec or Ticonderoga are marked with the letters 'Q' and 'T'. These assume that the bateau starts the turn in the most favorable hexside, i.e. the western class 3 hexside of Quebec (not the port entrance hexside) or the eastern class 3 hexside of Ticonderoga.
    3. The final 2 hexsides of the St Lawrence River are not shown. Instead, the text '+2' has been added, to remind players to pay an additional 2mp when entering/exiting the map along the St Lawrence.
    4. The Canada-Middle States border is shown by a white dotted line.
    5. The coastline has been cleaned up to clarify exactly which hexes and hexsides are playable. A coast hex can be entered by land units if and only if it contains some green (clear or swamp) terrain.
    6. To help players ensure that they're both using the same version of the map, the date it was last updated is shown in the bottom right corner.
  2. All units are considered NOT to be in ships or forts unless specifically noted otherwise in an email. Obviously, if the ship is in an all-sea hex, the units are in the ship. If 2 or more ships are in the same hex with embarked land units, the owner should indicate which units are on board each ship. If he fails to do so, and it turns out to be significant, then his opponent may decide which units are on board each ship. Units are always considered entrenched if the hex contains a friendly entrenchment counter.
  3. In each interphase, the American player makes all of his adjustments/placements, and then the British player makes all of his. In the face-to-face game, there is actually a more detailed back and forth sequence, as described above. But any benefit that would be gained from using the full sequence is probably too small to justify the extra exchanges of emails.
  4. When playing the physical boardgame, players are restricted to using only the number of counters provided. The computer program imposes no such restriction. However, it's recommended that players do restrict the following counter types to those available in the physical game:
    - Supply Units: British 14, American 10, French 5.
    - Bateaus: British 7, American 7.
    - Entrenchments: British 11, American 7.
    - 1-point regular units: BRs 18, CAs 14, FRs 3.
  5. Combat die rolls and tactical cards can be handled by the program's built-in combat facility (which isn't described in detail here). For other die rolls (Forced Marches, French Intervention, etc), players can use whatever system they agree on, such as the dice servers provided by Shadow Island Games and Irony Games.
  6. Combat procedure:
    1. The attacker begins a round of combat, using the program's combat facility. Then he saves the game (as 'Not end of turn') and sends the TWO files (****.usa and ****.176) to the defender. The defender loads the game, completes the combat round and saves the game (as 'End of turn'). Note: both players MUST use supply in the first round of combat if possible. This is a departure from the rules, but is a reasonable compromise to cut down on the number of email exchanges.
    2. The defender now returns the game to the attacker for another round of combat (unless, of course, the battle has ended with an NC or NE result, a successful withdrawal, or one side being eliminated). In his email, he must indicate whether he will use supply in the next round. He may declare 'WUSAD' (Will Use Supply if Attacker Does). If he fails to indicate whether he will use supply, the attacker should assume that he WILL use supply if possible, unless doing so won't affect the odds.
    3. If the attacker decides to continue the battle, he proceeds from step 'a' again (except that he may now choose not to use supply). Note that the game must be saved as 'End of turn' after EACH round of combat.
    4. If the attacker does not wish to continue the battle, he simply emails the defender to tell him so. If there is a possibility of the defender continuing the battle, the attacker must indicate whether he will use supply in that eventuality (same rules as in step 'b').
    5. If the defender chooses to continue the combat, he becomes the attacker and proceeds from step 'a'. Otherwise, the battle is over.
    6. Special combat situations:

    7. Defender-Initiated Combat. If the phasing player does not attack, the non-phasing player may initiate combat (if eligible). In this case, he becomes the attacker and proceeds from step 'a'.
    8. Continuous Combat. To save time, the attacker may dispense with the Tactical Results Matrix and accept an automatic -2 DRM (Frontal Assault vs Enfilade). In this case, he can resolve the round immediately, without reference to the defender. If the defender has no choice regarding supply (he has no supply unit, he's already used his supply unit for 2 rounds, or using supply won't affect the odds), the attacker may resolve as many rounds as he likes in this way. When resolving continuous combat, it's easiest not to use the program's built-in combat facility, but to use some other dice mechanism instead (as described above).
    9. Parallel Combat. If there are several battles taking place in one player segment, they should all be resolved in parallel, to save time, i.e. resolve the first round in all battles simultaneously, then the second round in all battles simultaneously, etc.
    10. Except as noted above, combat must be resolved in accordance with the rules. If the program gives an incorrect combat result, it should be ignored, and the correct result applied instead.