BLUE vs GRAY: THE CIVIL WAR CARD GAME
Unofficial rewrite by Richard Wein
Last updated June 24, 2000
(latest changes marked in red)
Blue vs Gray™ is a two-player division/corps level card game covering the Civil War from start to finish. To win as the USA, you must occupy the vital centers of the South. To win as the CSA you must invade the North or survive the Yankee onslaught. Both sides have a roughly equal chance to win.
Start by clearing an approximately 3 foot by 3 foot flat space to use as a board.
If you haven't already done so, punch out the die-cut blue (USA) and yellow (CSA) tokens. The complete game (two decks) contains 24 USA tokens and 6 CSA.
Obtain two dice (one red and one white).
Decide who will play the USA (North), and who will play the CSA (South).
USA: Remove all the rules cards (#R1-#R44) from your deck, along with the 2 map cards marked DO NOT PLAY. Place the Combat Card (#R31) and the Supply Card (#R33) in the lower right-hand corner of your side of the board. The rest of these cards are not used in the game, and should be set aside. You now have a deck of 76 playable cards numbered #1-#76. Find the 5 cards (#1-#5) marked AT START. 2 of these cards are map cards (A and B): place these face up in the center of the board. Keep the other 3 cards in your hand. Shuffle the remaining 71 cards, let your opponent cut, and place the deck face-down on your side of the board. Then draw the top 4 cards, and add them to your hand. Place a token on the "1" circle of your Supply Card, to show that you start the game with 1 supply point.
CSA: Remove all the rules cards (#R1-#R34) from your deck, along with the 3 map cards marked DO NOT PLAY. Place the Combat Card (#R31) and the Supply Card (#R33) in the lower right-hand corner of your side of the board. The rest of these cards are not used in the game, and should be set aside. You now have a deck of 80 playable cards numbered #1-#80. Find the 4 cards (#1-#4) marked AT START. 2 of these cards are map cards (D and E): place these face up in the center of the board. Keep the other 2 cards in your hand. Shuffle the remaining 76 cards, let your opponent cut, and place the deck face-down on your side of the board. Then draw the top 6 cards, and add them to your hand. Place a token on the "0" circle of your Supply card, to show that you start the game with 0 supply points.
If you draw any cards marked LATE-WAR, place these on the bottom of your deck, and draw new cards to replace them. Place the first LATE-WAR card on the bottom of your deck face-up, and the rest face-down (exception: the 1864 Elections card is always placed face-up).
Arrange the 4 AT START map cards as shown below, with cards A and B towards the USA player.
- Before the first turn of the game, the CSA player may (and should) play some cards (units and leaders) from his hand to the board. In order to do that, he'll need to know the rules about Card Types and Leadership.
- The board should now look something like this (except that the fanned cards will be in players' hands, not on the board):
- You are now ready to begin the game. The USA has the first turn.
Back to the Index.
There are 6 types of playable cards in the game:
- Map Cards.
- Infantry Units (Corps and Divisions).
- Cavalry Units.
- Naval Squadrons
- Enigma™ Cards.
A leader's strength is used in combat, along with the strengths of the units he commands.
A leader's initiative (0, 1 or 2) is also used in combat. Some leaders, such as the one shown here, have two initiative values. The top one is used when attacking, and the bottom one when defending.
A leader's capacity is the number of divisions (xx), corps (xxx) or armies (xxxx) that he can effectively command. The sample leader has two different capacities shown. The one near the top of the card (5xxx) indicates that he can command 5 corps when acting as a commander (with no superior leader). The one near the bottom of the card (3xxx) shows that he can command only 3 corps when acting as a subordinate leader.
A leader's command level is Corps Commander, Army Commander or Army-Group Commander.
A leader's directive and special rule (if he has them) describe any special restrictions or abilities that he has.
Some leaders are marked POLITICAL FAVOR or POLITICAL DISFAVOR. Political disfavor is important if the leader is sacked. Political favor is only relevant if you're playing Optional Rule 6.
The card number is only used if you're playing the Historical Scenario (usually you won't be).
The leader's history is for interest only, and has no effect on the game.
- The War is fought on a map, which, at the beginning of the game, consists of the 4 AT START map cards (A, B, D, E).
- Additional map cards are added to the map by players during the course of the game. The entire map consists of 11 cards (lettered A-K). To see how they fit together, refer to Rule Card #R13. You can only play a map card if it fits onto the existing map. For example, you can't play Map Card K until one of Map Cards G, H or J has been played.
- The key on Map Card E shows the meaning of the various city symbols. Note that ports, forts and pestholes are all types of city. When the rules refer to "cities", these other types are included.
- Cities are connected by roads (dotted red lines), railroads (solid red lines) and rivers (blue lines). Roads and railroads are treated as identical in the game, and are referred to collectively as "railroads". Any two cities are considered adjacent if they are connected by railroad or river with no intervening city. (Exception: riverine interdiction.)
- The map is divided into two theaters of operations, Eastern and Western. The boundary between the theaters is shown by the Appalachian mountains in the north and by a black line marked EAST/WEST in the south. The westernmost cities of the Eastern Theater are Harrisburg, Harper's Ferry, Shenandoah Valley, Lynchburg, Greensboro, Columbia and Savannah.
- Mountain ranges have no other effect on play, except that some railroads which cross mountains are marked NO ATTACKS, and, as you would expect, no attacks may be made along these lines. State boundaries (green lines) and swamps (gray areas) also have no effect on play.
- Cities named in blue are initially controlled by the USA, and are referred to as "native USA cities". Cities named in brown are initially controlled by the CSA, and are referred to as "native CSA cities". Cities named in black (on a white background) are initially neutral. When a player captures a city other than one of his native cities, he marks it with one of his tokens (blue or yellow) to show that he controls it.
- NOTE. The map is used to show the geography of the area, and to record which side controls each city. It does not show the location of particular units and leaders. These are simply located in one theater or the other, and may fight in any city (subject to the rules on Supply Lines).
- With the exception of the 4 AT START map cards, each map card comes in 2 different versions (or 3 in the case of Map Card C). For example, on the USA version of Map Card H, New Berne is a native USA city, while, on the CSA version, it's a native CSA city. Whichever version of the card is played first will remain in use throughout the current game. Other versions of the same map card are then useless, and should be discarded from your hand (removed from the game). You may draw a replacement card from your deck (but you don't have to). Your own version of a map card is always more favorable to you than your opponent's version, so it pays to get your own card down first!
- Neutral Cities. Neutral cities may be attacked by either player. As soon as a player announces an attack on a neutral city, his opponent places one of his tokens on that city, and may defend it immediately.
- Kentucky. "I hope that God is on my side. However, I must have Kentucky."-Lincoln.
- There are 2 versions of Map Card C in the USA deck, and 1 in the CSA deck.
- The 3 versions represent a pro-USA Kentucky, a neutral Kentucky, and a pro-CSA Kentucky.
- There are 4 cities in Kentucky: Louisville, Lexington, Bowling Green and Cumberland Gap. The first 3 are on Map Card C, and will be native USA cities, neutral cities or native CSA cities, depending on which version is played. Cumberland Gap is on Map Card D, and is therefore on the map right from the start.
- If Cumberland Gap is still neutral when Map Card C is played, proceed as follows:
- If the pro-USA version is played, place a USA token on Cumberland Gap.
- If the pro-CSA version is played, place a CSA token on Cumberland Gap.
- If the neutral version is played, Kentucky is now neutral. If any of the 4 cities is subsequently attacked, the attacker's opponent places his tokens on all 4 cities.
- If Cumberland Gap is attacked when Map Card C has not yet been played, the attacker's opponent places one of his tokens on Cumberland Gap. If, subsequently, the neutral Map Card C is played, the attacker's opponent places his tokens on the other 3 cities. If either of the other versions is played, these cities are controlled as shown on the card.
Infantry Units (Corps and Divisions)
The main attribute of an infantry unit is its strength (shown inside the bullet symbol).
All USA infantry units are corps, while all CSA infantry units are divisions. These cards can be identified by the word CORPS or DIVISION in the name.
An infantry unit may also have a directive and/or special rule. (If a unit has the directive EAST, WEST or EAST-WEST, this can be ignored, unless you're playing Optional Rule 1.)
The card also gives biographical information about the men who commanded the unit. This is for interest only, and has no effect on the game.
An infantry unit can be attached to a leader, or can operate on its own. A lone infantry unit cannot attack, and defends with an initiative of 0.
An infantry unit has 2 "steps". That means that, after taking 1 step loss in combat, it becomes depleted. After taking a second step loss, it goes to cadre.
A depleted USA corps has 2 strength points. A depleted CSA division has 1 strength point, unless its full strength is only 1 point, in which case its depleted strength is 0 points (but it still can fight).
Cavalry units have similar properties to infantry units, but there are some significant differences too.
Cavalry units can be identified by the word CAVALRY under the name, and by a crossed sabers symbol.
Each cavalry unit has an intrinsic leader, and the card is named after this leader. Like a leader card, a cavalry unit has an initiative rating. Nevertheless, the cavalry card is not a leader; it is a unit.
A cavalry unit can be attached to a leader, operate on its own, or pair up with another cavalry unit. Unlike infantry, a cavalry unit can attack on its own (thanks to its intrinsic leader).
Cavalry units have only 1 step each, and go to cadre as soon as they take a step loss.
Cavalry units can raid the opponent's supply points, and defend against the opponent's raids, but only when not attached to a leader.
Naval squadrons are identified by the word SQUADRON under the name, and by an anchor symbol.
Only the USA has naval squadrons.
Naval squadrons are not units and never form part of a command. However, they do have a strength rating that can be used for naval support.
A naval squadron has a very limited leadership ability. It may lead a single corps in an invasion. Nevertheless, a naval squadron card is not a leader.
Naval squadrons in the Eastern Theater can conduct a blockade of the CSA.
Riverine Interdiction. If the USA has a naval squadron in the West, then two cities connected only by river are not considered adjacent for the CSA, even if the USA doesn't yet have a connection to that part of the river. This applies for all purposes except for avoiding automatic surrender.
Naval squadrons can never be sent to cadre or removed from the game.
Enigma™ Cards. "One of those little things in war..."-Lincoln.
Many cards have special rules printed on them. When these rules conflict with the standard rules, the special rules take precedence.
- Enigma™ cards represent unique political, social and technological events. Each one has a different effect, as described in its special rule.
- Enigma™ cards can be played any time, including your opponent's turn, unless the rules on the card say otherwise.
- Sometimes the effect of an Enigma™ card can be felt for many turns (e.g. CSA Ironclads and USA Monitor). Place these cards in a convenient place on the board, and put one of your tokens on top to remind you that it's still active.
- When Enigma™ cards are discarded, they're removed from the game.
Back to the Index.
Every unit and leader which is in play must be part of a "command". A command consists of one or more unit cards and/or leader cards, which attack and defend together as a group. Four different command structures are possible:
A leader must always have at least one unit or subcommand under him. If left without any, he is dismissed (placed face-down in cadre). Exception: if this happens as a result of losses in combat, the leader is sacked instead (see Leader Losses).
A subordinate is not considered to be a commander, even though he has the words "Corps Commander", "Army Commander" or "Army-Group Commander" on his card.
A subordinate leader cannot be attached to another subordinate leader.
A unit cannot be attached to another unit. Exception: cavalry pairs.
There are two levels of leader, referred to as "low-level leaders" and "high-level leaders". Only a high-level leader can have subordinates attached to him. Because the size of formation represented by unit cards differs for the USA (corps) and the CSA (divisions), the names of the command levels are different too, as described in the next section.
On the board, show that cards are in the same command by arranging them together, overlapping, with the commander at the top.
- Single unit. A single infantry or cavalry unit on its own.
- One leader. The leader must have one or more units under him ("attached" to him). He is referred to as the "commander".
- Multiple leaders. One leader is the commander. Attached to him are one or more "subordinate" leaders, each of which has one or more units attached to him. The units attached to one subordinate, together with the subordinate himself, are referred to as a "subcommand". The commander may also have units attached to him directly.
- Cavalry pair (see below).
The USA has the following 3 levels of formation: corps (individual units), armies and army-groups.
Low-level leaders are Army Commanders (e.g. Meade). An army consists of an Army Commander plus one or more corps (and/or possibly a cavalry unit). An army may be an independent command or it may be a subcommand (attached to an Army-Group Commander).
A number of USA Army Commanders (marked WON'T SUBORDINATE) may not act as subordinates (e.g. McClellan).
High-level leaders are Army-Group Commanders (Grant, Sherman and Halleck). An army-group consists of an Army-Group Commander plus one or more lower-level formations, which may be armies (subcommands), corps and/or cavalry units.
Grant and Sherman may act as a subordinates (Halleck is marked WON'T SUBORDINATE). When acting as a subordinate, an Army-Group Commander is treated as an Army Commander (so he can't have subordinates of his own).
- Example. In the picture on the right, Bragg (commander) has 2 subordinates (Polk and Hardee). He also has a cavalry unit (Forrest) directly attached to him. Polk has 2 divisions under him, and Hardee has 1.
The CSA has the following 3 levels of formation: divisions (individual units), corps and armies.
Low-level leaders are Corps Commanders (e.g. Jackson). A corps consists of a Corps Commander plus one or more divisions (and/or possibly a cavalry unit). A corps may be an independent command or it may be a subcommand (attached to an Army Commander).
High-level leaders are Army Commanders (e.g. R. E. Lee). An army consists of an Army Commander plus one or more lower-level formations, which may be corps (subcommands), divisions and/or cavalry units.
An Army Commander may act as a subordinate, providing his card isn't marked WON'T SUBORDINATE. When acting as a subordinate, the Army Commander is treated as a Corps Commander (so he can't have subordinates of his own).
Each leader has a capacity shown inside a flag on his card. This is the maximum number of formations that he can effectively lead. The possible formations are divisions (xx), corps (xxx) and armies (xxxx), e.g. 5xxx means that he can lead up to 5 corps.
A leader's capacity is shown in two places on his card, and these are sometimes different. When he's a commander, use the value shown near the top of the card. When he's acting as a subordinate, use the value at the bottom of the card.
When individual unit cards are directly attached to a high-level leader, they count against his capacity as if they were larger formations. For example, R.E. Lee (CSA) has a capacity of 3xxx (3 corps); each division directly attached to him counts as a corps.
Any leader who is a commander may have one cavalry unit attached to him for free (it doesn't count against his capacity). A high-level leader may have additional cavalry units attached, with each one counting against his capacity as if it was an army (USA) or corps (CSA). A cavalry unit may never be attached to a subordinate.
A leader is free to exceed his capacity. However, at the start of a battle, excess cards must be turned face-down (they become inactive) and play no part in the battle. Despite this, a low-level leader may never have more than one cavalry unit attached, and a subordinate leader may never have any cavalry attached, even if they are inactive.
(Lee's Army of Northern Virginia at Chancellorsville)
- R.E. LEE [#38]
- Stuart [#45]
- McLaws' Div. [#30]
- R.H. Anderson's Div. [#33]
- JACKSON [#21]
- The Stonewall Div. [#9]
- Ewell's Div. [#10]
- A.P. Hill's Div. [#34]
- D.H. Hill's Div. [#22]
- Army Commander.
- Cavalry, attached to Lee for free.
- Attached to Lee in lieu of a corps.
- Attached to Lee in lieu of a corps.
- Corps Commander; Lee's subordinate.
- Attached to Jackson.
- Attached to Jackson.
- Attached to Jackson.
- Attached to Jackson.
- Cavalry Pairs
- Two cavalry units can pair up to form an independent command, called a "cavalry pair". This is the only way a command can contain two or more units without a leader.
- To create a cavalry pair, attach a cavalry unit to a lone cavalry unit. This is an exception to the usual rule that a unit cannot be attached to another unit.
- A cavalry pair must constitute the entire command. The command can never have more than two units in it, even if one of them is inactive.
- A cavalry pair may not be attached to a leader.
- The leading cavalry unit in the pair (the one that has the other one attached to it) is considered the commander, and uses its initiative in combat. However, it is still a unit and not a leader. Therefore, it cannot be killed, wounded, sacked, disgraced or dismissed.
- The cavalry pair is broken up only when the attached unit is detached, or when either unit is sent to cadre.
Back to the Index.
The following picture shows a typical late game situation:
- Note the following points:
- As the game progresses, additional map cards are added to the map, which expands towards the CSA player.
- Between each player's draw deck and the map is the player's "cadre". (In the example shown, the USA has 3 cards in his cadre, and the CSA has 5.) Cards in cadre are temporarily out of play, but may return. The cards are spread out, so they can be seen by both players. Some cards in cadre may be face-down.
- Cards which have been removed from play permanently (dead leaders, duplicate map cards, discarded Enigma™ cards, etc) are placed in a "dead pile" on the player's extreme right, spread out so they can be seen.
- Units and leaders in play are arranged in commands (see Leadership).
- The location of commands (Eastern or Western Theater) is indicated by their placement on one side of the draw deck or the other. Here, the CSA has 2 commands in the East and 4 in the West (one of them is a single division on its own).
- Depleted units, such as the lone CSA division, are rotated 90º.
- The USA player places his naval squadrons by the sides of the map (or preferably in the "notches" formed by the staggered arrangement of the map cards). Here, the USA has 2 naval squadrons in the West and 1 in the East. It doesn't matter that the 2 naval squadrons in the west are overlapping. Since naval squadrons can never be part of a command, the players know that they are independent anyway.
- Active Enigma™ cards are placed in any convenient space, with a token on top. Here, the USA has an Enigma™ card between his Western naval squadrons and his dead pile.
- In this example, the players' hands (CSA 1 card, USA 4 cards) are shown face-up on the board. In practice, these cards would be kept concealed from the opponent.
- Any face-down card in play or cadre can be inspected by either player.
Back to the Index.
Step 5: REGROUP
Restore depleted units (1 supply per 3 units).
- Players take alternate turns, starting with the USA. Each player's turn consists of 5 steps.
- Step 1: DRAW / REPLACE (in any order)
- Draw cards.
- Take supply points.
- Take cards from cadre.
- Cash in supply points.
- Restore depleted units (1 supply per 3 units, plus possible free ones).
- Replace useless (duplicate) map cards.
- At the end of Step 1, turn up any face-down cards in cadre.
- Step 2: DEPLOY / MOVE (in any order)
- Play map cards.
- Deploy units, leaders and naval squadrons from hand.
- Transfer units within commands.
- Detach/attach subcommands and individual units.
- Dismiss/replace leaders.
- Move forces from one theater to the other by rail movement.
- Move naval squadrons between theaters.
- Step 3: COMBAT (in any order)
- Step 4: REORGANIZATION
- Only if you didn't attack or raid.
- Costs 1 supply point.
- Freely rearrange any of your cards in play.
End of your turn. Proceed to opponent's turn.
Back to the Index.
Step 1: DRAW / REPLACE
During your Draw/Replace Step, you are entitled to draw a certain number of cards, and possibly to receive additional benefits as well. Players also have the following options:
USA is normally entitled to draw 5 cards.
This is reduced to 4 if the USA railnet has been severed (see Railnets below).
USA may also restore 1 depleted corps to full strength for free.
During USA Late-War, USA gets 1 additional supply point (see Late-War below).
- In lieu of drawing a card, you can take any face-up card from your cadre (into your hand), or add 1 supply point to your supply point total. However, the USA must always draw a minimum of 2 cards, and the CSA a minimum of 1 card (except, of course, when the player's deck is empty).
- You can take additional cards from your deck or cadre by "cashing in" saved supply points, 1 point for each extra card taken.
- Adjust the token on your Supply Card to reflect any supply points received or spent. If your supply point total exceeds 6, add another token.
- You can restore depleted units to full strength at a cost of 1 supply point for each 3 units (or part thereof) restored. (The reverse is not true: if you're entitled to restore 3 depleted units for free, you may not take a supply point or card instead.)
- After drawing each card, a player may look at it before deciding whether to draw any more cards.
- Example. The USA badly needs a leader; he draws cards until he gets one (and has drawn at least 2 cards) and then takes the remainder of his draw as supplies.
- If you have a map card in your hand which is useless, because another version of the same card has already been played, you must remove it from play. You may draw another card to replace it (this is optional).
CSA is entitled to a maximum of 4 cards, but this may be reduced by loss of CSA production.
The CSA has 3 types of production:
The CSA is only entitled to its full 4 card draw if has not lost any type of production. Otherwise, the following apply:
- Food. This is lost if (a) the USA controls the Shenandoah Valley, and (b) the CSA railnet has been severed (see Railnets below).
- Industry. This is lost if the USA controls Richmond and Atlanta.
- Contraband. This is lost if the USA controls all cities on the Mississippi (Cairo, Memphis, Vicksburg, Port Hudson and New Orleans). This is only possible when map cards C, F and I are all in play. (The USA does not need a naval squadron in the West to meet this condition).
The CSA regains the appropriate production as soon as the conditions are no longer met.
- Loss of any 1 type of production: CSA draw is reduced to 3 cards, but it may restore 1 extra depleted unit for free.
- Loss of any 2 types of production: CSA draw is reduced to 3 cards.
- Loss of all 3 types of production: CSA draw is reduced to 2 cards, but it may restore 2 extra depleted units for free.
The CSA gains additional benefits if the USA does not maintain a full blockade.
- Example. The CSA regains its industry production if it recaptures either Richmond or Atlanta.
- A partial blockade is automatically in effect whenever the USA fulfills one of these two conditions:
- There is a USA naval squadron in the Eastern Theater.
- The USA controls all Atlantic Coast ports (Savannah, Charleston/Ft Sumter, Wilmington, New Berne, Norfolk, Ft Monroe and Baltimore) or all Gulf Coast ports (New Orleans, Ft Pickens, Pensacola, Ft Morgan and Mobile).
- If the USA fulfills both conditions or has 2 naval squadrons in the East, then a full blockade is in effect. If he fulfills neither condition, then no blockade is in effect.
- If there is no blockade in effect, the CSA gets 1 free supply point.
- If there is a partial blockade, the CSA may restore 1 extra depleted unit for free.
- Naval squadrons are free to perform other activities while enforcing the blockade.
- A railnet is a network of friendly cities, each of which is connected to each of the others by a chain of adjacent friendly cities. Despite the name, the cities may be connected by railroad and/or river (but see Riverine Interdiction).
- The USA railnet is considered severed if no railnet contains at least 9 native USA cities. For this purpose, only the 12 cities north of the original border are counted: Washington, Baltimore, Harper's Ferry, Harrisburg, Pittsburgh, Cleveland, Toledo, Columbus, Cincinnati, Indianapolis, Centralia and Cairo. Note that, until Map Card C has been played, Centralia and Cairo are not available, making the USA railnet particularly vulnerable at this time.
- The CSA railnet is considered severed if no railnet contains as many native CSA cities as there are map cards in play. All native CSA cities can be counted, including those in a pro-CSA Kentucky.
At the end of your Draw/Replace Step, turn up any face-down cards in your cadre.
- Cards with the directive LATE-WAR can only be played in the final stages of the game.
- Each time you draw a Late-War card, you must place it on the bottom of your deck, and draw another card to replace it. Place the first Late-War card on the bottom of your deck face-up, and the rest face-down (exception: the 1864 Elections card is always placed face-up). This is mandatory, and failure to comply is cheating. Both players are entitled to look at face-up cards in the deck, but not at face-down cards.
- When you draw the first face-up card, your Late-War begins. From then on, treat Late-War cards just like any others, i.e. put them in your hand when you draw them; don't put them on the bottom of the deck again.
- Each player has his own Late-War, which may start at a different time from the opponent's.
- During USA Late-War, the following special rules apply:
- USA gets 1 additional supply point in his Draw/Replace Step.
- USA attacks and defenses supplied by sea are no longer limited to 2 corps and 1 leader (but invasions still are).
- After a player's deck runs out, he must take all his draw entitlement as supply points and/or cards from cadre.
- Furthermore, when the USA deck runs out, this signals the end of the game. The USA completes his current turn, the CSA takes his turn, and the USA then has one final turn. Then the game ends, and Victory Conditions are checked.
Back to the Index.
Step 2: DEPLOY / MOVE
During your Deploy/Move Step, you can take any or all of the following actions. You can take any number of these actions, in any order you like, as long as each action is legal at the moment it's taken.
During the course of this Step, a leader may temporarily be left with no cards attached. However, at the end of the Step, any leader who still has no cards attached is automatically dismissed (placed face-down in cadre).
- Play a map card. The CSA must play all playable map cards in his hand. For the USA, playing map cards is optional. (See Map Cards.)
- Deploy a unit, leader or naval squadron from your hand to the board in either theater. This card forms a new command (except naval squadrons, which are never part of a command). If you want to add a unit to an existing command you must first deploy it and then attach it (see below).
- Transfer a unit up, from a subordinate to a commander, or down, from a commander to his subordinate (see Leadership). Within a given command, units may be transferred up or down, but not both in the same Deploy/Move Step. A unit may not be transferred directly from one subordinate to another, or from one command to another.
- Example. Lee has two subordinates, Jackson and Longstreet. Jackson transfers one division up to Lee. That division cannot then be transferred down to Longstreet in the same turn.
- Detach a unit or subcommand to form an independent command.
- Attach an existing command to a leader in the same theater.
- When one leader attaches to another (as a subordinate), the newly attached leader may absorb units directly from other subordinates in the same command.
- A leader with a subordinate may not attach to another leader.
- If a leader with cavalry units attaches to another leader, the cavalry units are automatically transferred up to the commander (even if that commander has already transferred a unit down to another subordinate).
- No command may be detached and then attached (or vice versa) in the same Deploy/Move Step. (Exception: Free Transfer.)
- Example. A.P. Hill's Division detaches from Longstreet. It can't now attach to Jackson, even within the same Army.
- Example. Longstreet's Corps detaches from Lee, and Early's Corps attaches to Lee. This is okay. Lee did not attach or detach; Jackson and Longstreet did. Longstreet could not now attach to another leader.
- Free Transfer. As an exception to the rule above, in each Deploy/Move Step, just one unit or subcommand may detach and then attach again (or vice versa). It could detach in one theater, move to the other theater by rail movement (see below), and then attach to another leader there.
- Dismiss a leader. The dismissed leader goes to cadre (face-down). You must deal with the leader's former command or subcommand in one of the following ways:
- Replace him from your hand. The replacement leader now leads all units and/or subcommands that the old leader did. No cards are considered to have been attached or detached, and the command is still considered to be the same one as before, not a new one.
- Replace him with another leader from the same theater (perhaps one of his own subordinates, if eligible). This is the same as above, except that now you need to deal with that leader's former command or subcommand as if he too had been dismissed.
- Don't replace the leader. If he was a commander, his command is broken up. Each of his directly attached units and/or subcommands becomes an independent command. If the dismissed leader was a subordinate, his units must be transferred to other leaders in the same command. For this purpose, the units may be transferred directly to other subordinates (contrary to the usual transfer rule). In any case, no cards are considered to have been attached or detached.
- Rail Movement. Leaders and units may be moved from one theater to the other by rail movement.
- During each Deploy/Move Step you can select just one command for rail movement. That command and/or any cards that subsequently detach from it may then be moved by rail.
- Example. At the start of the Step, Lee is in the Eastern Theater commanding 3 corps (led by Jackson, Ewell and Longstreet). The CSA player attaches another corps (led by Pemberton) to Lee (exceeding Lee's capacity, but that doesn't matter), and then selects Lee's command for rail movement. He wants to keep Lee in the East, but he detaches Jackson's and Pemberton's corps, and moves them to the West (using his free transfer to detach Pemberton).
- Cards moved by rail arrive immediately, but may not attack in the same turn. If they attach to a leader in their new theater, they must be turned face-down until the end of the following Combat Step, to show that they are inactive.
- Move any number of naval squadrons between theaters. Control of the Mississippi River is not required. These naval squadrons are then inactive (turned face-down) and have no effect on play, until the end of the following Combat Step.
When you want to move a unit or subcommand from one command to another, you basically have the following options:
- Use your free transfer, but this is limited to one unit or subcommand per turn.
- Detach the unit on one turn and attach it in your next turn, but this takes 2 turns and your units are scattered in the interim.
- Reorganization (see Step 4), but this costs you a supply point and you can't attack or raid in the same turn. (On the other hand, you get to reorganize your forces completely.)
Back to the Index.
Step 3: COMBAT
In your Combat Step, you can attack one or more enemy cities, in an attempt to capture them. Each attack follows this basic sequence:
Launching an attack
- The attacker (the player whose turn it is) announces which command is attacking, and which enemy city is the target of the attack.
- The defender announces which command will defend the city.
- Both players have the opportunity to withdraw units and/or add additional units (reserves).
- The combat is resolved.
- If the attacker succeeded in capturing the target city, the defending force must retreat. If unable to do so, it is wiped out.
The defender may choose to "wimp out", i.e. not offer any defense. In this case, the attacker immediately captures the target city, and the attack is over. The attacker still expends 1 supply point.
Only one command can defend against each attack. It must be located in the appropriate theater (see Supply Lines).
The defender may choose to defend from his hand, by playing one unit (infantry or cavalry) from his hand to form a new command.
Otherwise, the defender announces which existing command will respond to the attack. Before proceeding, he may detach one or more units and/or subcommands from this command. Units may be detached from the commander and/or from his subordinates. No other adjustments (attaching or transferring) may be made. The defender must then select one of these newly detached commands, or the remainder of the original command, to defend.
- Each attack is made by a single command against a single target city, with the aim of capturing that city.
- Each attack has a jumping-off city (the friendly city from which the attack is coming). Although the attacker doesn't usually need to name the jumping-off city, he must do so if the defender asks him.
- If the attacking commander has an initiative of 0 or 1, then the target city must be adjacent to the jumping-off city. (But see Riverine Interdiction.) If the attacking commander has an initiative of 2, then there may be one intervening enemy city. (Exception: the intervening city may not be a CSA-controlled pesthole.)
- An attack is not allowed if any part of the connection between the jumping-off city and the target city is marked NO ATTACKS.
- The attacker must be able to trace a supply line from the jumping-off city to a supply base. The attacking command must be located in the same theater as this supply base (see Supply Lines).
- Each attack costs the attacker 1 supply point. He may not attack if he has no supply points remaining.
- No unit or leader may be involved in more than one attack per turn.
- Subject to the above, there is no limit on the number of attacks that may be made in a turn. The same city may be attacked more than once per turn (by different commands).
- The attacker may not detach or otherwise reorganize any commands during the Combat Step, except when required by the loss of a leader (see Leader Losses below). If, for example, he wants a command to invade, he must ensure in the Deploy/Move Step that the command meets the necessary conditions (maximum of 2 corps and 1 leader).
A unit or leader which has already defended in the current turn may defend against another attack, providing one of the following applies:
- Example. Lee's army responds to a USA attack. Lee has 2 subordinates (Jackson and Longstreet) each with 3 divisions. The CSA detaches one of Jackson's divisions to form a second command, and detaches Jackson with his other 2 divisions to form a third command. The CSA can now defend with Lee's command (including Longstreet), Jackson's command (with 2 divisions), or the lone division. The 2 unused commands could defend later in the turn.
The defender never expends any supply points.
- the target city is one which it defended earlier in the same turn; or
- the jumping-off city of the attack is one which it defended earlier in the same turn; or
- the attacker's supply line is being traced through or to a city which it defended earlier in the same turn (see Supply Lines).
A command attacks or defends using the initiative rating of its commander. The initiative of any subordinates is irrelevant.
Some leaders have a split initiative. The upper number is used when attacking, and the lower when defending.
A lone cavalry unit attacks or defends with the initiative shown on the card (it is its own commander).
The commander of a cavalry pair is the leading cavalry unit.
A lone infantry unit defends with an initiative of 0, and cannot attack. Exception: a lone USA infantry unit can make an invasion led by a naval squadron, in which case initiative is irrelevant (see Invasions below).
- If any leader in either command is exceeding his leadership capacity, the owning player must turn face-down the excess cards of his choice. These cards are considered inactive, and play no part in the combat.
- Each player may now play additional units (reserves) from his hand to his command. The players alternate, playing one card at a time, starting with the attacker, and continuing until both players "pass" consecutively. Cards added must conform to the Leadership rules, and may not exceed a leader's capacity.
- When it's your opportunity to play a card, you may instead withdraw a unit from your command, by turning it face-down. Withdrawing a unit frees up some leadership capacity, so you can add more reserves. It can also reduce the casualties suffered by your force.
- Once you withdraw a unit, it remains face-down (inactive) until the end of the battle. You cannot add it back again.
- You must always leave at least one active unit in the command.
- If, at any time, a subordinate leader has no active units attached to him, he is also turned face-down.
- Leaders can't be added as reserves.
- A cavalry unit can be added as a reserve to another, lone cavalry unit, to form a cavalry pair, unless the lone cavalry unit was just played from your hand to defend against the current attack.
- Roll 2 dice (one red, one white) and consult the Combat Table on the Combat Card. (See the back of the card for details.)
- Add up the strength of all active units and leaders (including subordinates) involved in the battle on each side. The CSA adds an additional 5 strength points if defending a pesthole. The USA adds the strength of any naval squadrons he has in support.
- Modify the red die roll, based on whether the target city is a fort, the difference in strength points between the two sides, and any applicable Enigma™ cards. All die roll modifiers are cumulative, and affect the red die only. If the modified die roll is greater than 6, treat it as a 6. If less than 1, treat it as a 1. All applicable die roll modifiers are added automatically; you may not choose to ignore them.
- The red die roll tells you who won the battle. (The side which was not defeated or routed was the winner.) In the case of a Generals' Battle or Soldiers' Battle, the result may be a stalemate (no winner or loser).
- The white die roll tells you the general casualty level (light, normal or heavy) applicable to both players. Each player then consults the Casualties Table independently, to find out exactly how many steps he must lose.
- Each player decides which of his own units will take losses (attacker first). Losses must be taken from active units first. If all active units involved in the battle are lost, then any remaining losses must be taken from inactive (face-down) units in the command (if any).
- Losses are taken in "steps". Infantry units have 2 steps; cavalry units have 1. A 2-step unit which takes 1 step loss is "depleted". Show this by rotating the card 90º. A 1-step unit or depleted 2-step unit which takes a step loss is placed in the owner's cadre pile. A 2-step unit may lose both its steps in one battle.
City Capture & Retreat
- If both players have at least one active leader in the battle, a leader may have been killed, wounded or sacked. If you rolled a total of 7 (red die + white die), a USA leader is affected; if you rolled doubles (red die = white die), a CSA leader is affected. (For this purpose, ignore any die roll modifiers.) In either case, roll one die again and consult the Leader Losses Table, to see whether the leader was killed, wounded or sacked, and which player chooses the affected leader (if there is more than one). For the effect of being killed, wounded or sacked, see the back of the Combat Card.
- A leader (commander or subordinate) is also sacked if he is left with no units or leaders under him (active or inactive) at the end of a battle.
- A leader marked POLITICAL DISFAVOR is disgraced (permanently removed from the game) if he is routed while a commander (not a subordinate), or if he is sacked at any time. (Note: the Combat Card doesn't mention that a routed leader can be disgraced.)
- If a leader is killed, wounded, sacked or disgraced, treat his command or subcommand as if he had been dismissed (see Deploy/Move Step). Any new commands created by the breakup of a command may be immediately attached to other leaders in the same theater. In this case, they become inactive (turned face-down) and may not take part in any further combat in the current turn. The remainder of the command to which they are now attached may still attack or defend, providing it is otherwise eligible to do so.
- Example. Lee is wounded while successfully defending Manassas. He is not replaced, so his subordinates, Jackson and Longstreet, split up. J.E. Johnston, another commander in the same theater, takes over Longstreet's corps, but decides not to take Jackson's. The USA attacks Manassas again. Jackson can defend again, but Longstreet may not, because he is now attached to Johnston. Johnston could defend (if otherwise eligible), but not using Longstreet. If Longstreet had not been attached to J.E. Johnston, any of Longstreet, Jackson or Johnston could defend.
- Inactive leaders are ignored when determining leader losses, as are cavalry units and naval squadrons (despite their limited leadership ability). The Leader Losses Table is never consulted unless both players have an active leader card involved in the battle. However, a leader may be sacked due to loss of all his attached cards, or be disgraced due to a rout, even if the enemy force does not include a leader.
A card (unit or leader) is inactive when it's turned face-down. This can happen for any of the following reasons:
- The attacker captures the target city if he wins the battle or if the defending command is wiped out (i.e. there are no units remaining in the defending command, active or inactive, after taking casualties). Exceptions:
- The city is not captured if the attacking commander is killed, wounded or sacked, even if he wins the battle. (But a cavalry pair whose leading unit went to cadre still takes the city.)
- The city is not captured if the attacking command is wiped out, even if the attacker wins the battle and the defending command is wiped out too.
- The captured city is now controlled by the attacker. Mark it with one of his tokens. It may be used as a jumping-off city for further attacks in the same turn.
- When a city is captured, the defender must retreat. Retreating doesn't involve any movement. However, if the defender is unable to retreat, his entire command is wiped out: all units go to cadre and leaders are sacked. For how to determine whether a command can retreat, see Supply Lines.
- Attacking commands are never required to retreat.
In the first 2 cases above, the cards are turned face-up again at the end of the current attack. In the last 3 cases, they aren't turned face-up until the end of the Combat Step.
If at any time a leader has only inactive cards attached to him, he becomes inactive too.
If a leader becomes inactive, then so do all cards attached to him.
Inactive cards are ignored when resolving battles. However:
- If a leader is exceeding his leadership capacity when he enters combat, excess units (owner's choice) must be turned face-down.
- When it's his turn to play reserves, a player may instead choose to withdraw a unit from the command, turning it face-down.
- Cards which use rail movement and then attach to a leader in their new theater are turned face-down to show that they can't attack in the same turn.
- Naval squadrons which change theater are turned face-down to show that they have no effect on play during the subsequent Combat Step.
- When a leader is lost in battle (killed, wounded, sacked or disgraced), this may result in cards being moved from one command to another. If any such cards have already attacked or defended, they are turned face-down to show that they can't attack or defend again in the same turn.
Maritime Operations. Naval squadrons in the Eastern Theater can add their strength into a battle whenever the USA is attacking or defending a port, whether on the Atlantic Coast or the Gulf Coast. Exception: naval support may only be used at Mobile if Ft Morgan is USA-controlled, and at Pensacola if Ft Pickens is USA-controlled.
Riverine Operations. Naval squadrons in the Western Theater can add their strength into a battle whenever the USA is attacking or defending a city on a river, providing that city is connected to a native USA city by river with no intervening enemy or neutral cities.
- If losses exceed the active units available, the excess is taken from inactive units. (But inactive leaders are always ignored for resolving leader losses.)
- Inactive cards are still considered to have taken part in the attack or defense, for the purpose of determining whether they can attack or defend again in the same turn.
- Example. The USA attacks Manassas. Lee, with subordinates Jackson and Longstreet, defends, but withdraws Longstreet's corps from the battle. Lee loses the battle, is killed and his command is broken up (see Leader Losses). Later in the same turn, the USA announces an attack on Richmond, from Ft Monroe. Longstreet may not defend Richmond, as his corps is considered to have already defended Manassas, even though it was inactive at the time. If the USA attacked the Wilderness from Manassas, Longstreet would be able to defend, as the jumping-off city is one which he defended earlier in the turn.
- If a defending command is unable to retreat when required to do so, inactive units go to cadre and inactive leaders are sacked (see City Capture above).
- Whenever the rules limit the size of a command that may be used in an attack or defense, the limit includes inactive cards.
- Example. The USA is attacking from Pensacola to Montgomery, supplied by sea. The attacking command is limited to 1 leader and 2 corps. He cannot use a command with 3 corps, even if one is inactive. He would need to detach the excess corps during his previous Deploy/Move Step.
A naval squadron can give naval support to any number of attacks or defenses in one turn, and all naval squadrons in the appropriate theater can be used in each attack.
Since naval squadrons are not units, they don't count for calculating losses in battle. Naval squadrons can never be sent to cadre or eliminated.
- Example. If the USA attacks Corinth before taking Fts Henry & Donelson, he cannot use naval support.
Detailed Attack Sequence
- An invasion is an attack on an enemy port without a conventional jumping-off city. The attack is made from the sea, not from any particular city. No supply line is needed.
- Only the USA may make invasions, and only if it has a naval squadron in the Eastern Theater. All naval squadrons in the East can give naval support to the invasion.
- An invasion may be made against any CSA-controlled port, whether on the Atlantic Coast or the Gulf Coast. Exception: Mobile may only be invaded if Ft Morgan is USA-controlled, and Pensacola may only be invaded if Ft Pickens is USA-controlled.
- The attacking command must be located in the Eastern Theater, regardless of where the target port is.
- An invading command is limited to a maximum of 1 leader and 2 corps (no cavalry).
- An invasion may be made by a single corps without a leader. (A naval squadron is considered to be providing leadership.) In this case, any Soldiers' Battle or Generals' Battle is automatically a stalemate.
- Only one invasion may be attempted per turn.
The object of a cavalry raid is to reduce your opponent's supply point total. If he has no supply points, there's no benefit in raiding.
A cavalry raid is not a form of combat, and does not cost a supply point, but it takes place during the Combat Step. You can only raid once per turn. This may be at any time during your Combat Step.
Cavalry units may only raid, or defend against a raid, if they were "free" at the start of the Combat Step. A free cavalry unit is one that is not attached to a leader. Cavalry pairs are free.
No cavalry unit may raid, or defend against a raid, and be involved in combat (attack or defense) in the same Combat Step. After a unit has raided or defended against raiding, turn it face-down until the end of the Combat Step.
To resolve a cavalry raid, each player adds the strengths of all the free cavalry units that he wishes to commit to raiding or defense against raiding. Ignore theaters.
- Attacker announces the target city, and expends 1 supply.
- If target city is a port and defender has a choice of whether to supply by sea, he announces his choice.
- Attacker announces which command is attacking.
- Attacker turns down any cards in his command which exceed leadership limits.
- Defender announces which command will respond, defends from his hand, or "wimps out".
- Defender may detach one or more parts of the responding command, to form new commands.
- Defender announces which of the above commands will defend.
- Defender turns down any cards in his command which exceed leadership limits.
- Both players take turns adding reserves or withdrawing units, one card at a time, attacker first.
- Determine battle outcome.
- Determine casualties.
- Attacker removes his casualties.
- Defender removes his casualties.
- Resolve leader losses.
- Determine whether defending city is captured.
- Defender retreats (if applicable).
- Turn up inactive (face-down) cards (if applicable).
- Proceed to next attack.
- If the raiding player's total exceeds the defending player's total by 8 or more, the defender loses 2 supply points.
- If the raiding player's total exceeds the defending player's total by 4 to 7, the defender loses 1 supply point.
- If the raiding player's total exceeds the defending player's total by 3 or less, the defender loses no supply points unless he has no defending cavalry at all (and there is at least one raiding cavalry), in which case the defender loses 1 supply point.
Back to the Index.
Step 4: REORGANIZATION
If you didn't attack or raid in this turn, you may now reorganize all your cards in play, at a cost of 1 supply point.
During reorganization, you can freely rearrange all your commands, and move any number of cards between theaters.
You can also play cards from your hand. You may not put cards back in your hand.
At the end of this Step, any leader who has no cards attached is automatically dismissed (placed face-down in cadre).
Back to the Index.
Step 5: REGROUP
In your Regroup Step, you may restore depleted units to full strength at a cost of 1 supply unit for each 3 units (or part thereof) restored (just as in the Draw/Replace Step).
YOUR TURN IS NOW OVER. During your opponent's turn the only things you can do are:
- Defend against your opponent's attacks and cavalry raids.
- Play Enigma™ cards, if applicable.
Back to the Index.
For the CSA, a supply base is any native CSA city adjacent (by railroad or river) to another friendly city. (But see Riverine Interdiction.) The other friendly city doesn't need to be a native city or in the same theater.
For the USA, a supply base is any native USA city, except Ft Pickens, Pensacola and New Berne.
Tracing a supply line
A supply line is traced from a friendly city back to a supply base, through a chain of adjacent friendly cities, by railroad and/or river. (But see Riverine Interdiction.)
The USA can also trace a supply line by sea.
A supply line may not be traced through a supply base, i.e. it must stop in the first supply base it reaches (but this need not necessarily be the nearest one possible). If the jumping-off city or target city is itself a supply base, then it must supply itself, i.e. the supply line cannot be traced out of the city at all. This rule means that a city must usually trace a supply line back to a supply base in the same theater.
Supply lines in combat
The attacker may only attack if he can trace a supply line from the jumping-off city back to a supply base. The attack must then be made from the theater containing the supply base, i.e. the attacking command must be located in that theater.
- Example. USA is attacking from Cairo to Memphis. The attack must be supplied from Cairo. Since Cairo is itself a supply base, the USA may not trace the supply line any further. Thus, the USA cannot trace the supply line to Washington, say, and claim that he is attacking from the East.
If the attacker is able to trace a valid supply line to a supply base in each theater, then he may choose which theater to attack from.
In general, the defender does not need a supply line, but he will be unable to retreat if he doesn't have one. The defender can only retreat if he can trace a supply line (before the battle) to a supply base in the theater from which he is defending. Exceptions: the CSA can always retreat from a pesthole; the USA cannot retreat from a native USA city unless he has an adjacent friendly city or the target city is a port.
Normally the defender defends from the theater containing the target city. However, there are two situations in which the defender can defend from the other theater:
- Example. USA attacks from Augusta to Atlanta, tracing its supply line back to Washington. This is an attack from the East (even though Augusta and Atlanta are both in the West).
It's possible for both sides in a battle to be using the same stretch of railroad or river.
- Situation 1. If the defender can trace a valid supply line from the target city to a supply base in the other theater, then he can defend from the theater of his choice.
- Example. CSA attacks from Atlanta to Chattanooga. USA can trace supply lines from Chattanooga to Washington (via Knoxville and Lynchburg) and to Cincinnatti. USA can choose to defend from either theater, and can retreat in either case.
- Example. CSA attacks from Columbus to Atlanta. USA has a supply line from Atlanta to Washington, but not to any supply base in the West. USA can choose to defend from the East (in which case he can retreat), or from the West (in which case he can't). [Rationale: if USA defends from the West, where he doesn't have a supply line, his command is assumed to be operating behind enemy lines.]
- Situation 2. If the attacker is making a cross-theater attack (i.e. using a command in one theater to attack a city in the other theater), then the defender can defend from the theater of his choice, even if he cannot trace a supply line to that theater. Furthermore, for purposes of retreat, the defender can ignore the usual rule which forces a supply line to stop in the first supply base it reaches.
- Example. USA attacks from Atlanta to Macon, using an Eastern command (tracing supply via Chattanooga, Knoxville and Lynchburg to Washington). Since this is a cross-theater attack, CSA may defend from the East. If Savannah is CSA-controlled, CSA can trace a special supply line to the East, and so may retreat if necessary. If Savannah is USA-controlled, then CSA cannot trace a special supply line to the East, and therefore will be unable to retreat if he chooses to defend from there. [Rationale: as the attacking command is marching to Macon from the East, the defending command also has time to march from the East; if defeated, it must retreat all the way back to the East.]
- Example. USA attacks from Atlanta to Macon, using a western Command (tracing supply to Cincinnati). This is not a cross-theater attack, so the CSA supply line must stop in Macon. Therefore CSA can only defend from the West.
- Exception: if the USA is invading a city in the West, or is attacking a city in the West and can trace a supply line out to sea through a port in the West (see Supply by Sea), then the CSA may not defend from the East.
- Example. USA attacks from Montgomery to Selma, tracing its supply line by sea through Pensacola. Even though USA is attacking from the East, CSA must defend from the West. [Rationale: since the attacking command is arriving by sea, CSA does not have time to march a command from the East.]
- Example. USA attacks from Montgomery to Selma, tracing its supply line overland to Savannah and then out to sea. In this case CSA may defend from the East.
When attacking or defending cross-theater (from one theater to the other), the commands involved always remains in their theater of origin. Commands never change theater during the Combat Step.
- Example. USA controls Columbia and Charleston. CSA attacks from Augusta to Columbia. USA may trace a supply line from Columbia to Charleston. In reality, the attack is not necessarily following the route of the railroad.
Supply by Sea
If a city has no other friendly city within 2 moves of it, it surrenders immediately.
- The USA can trace a supply line out to sea via any friendly port. The supply line is assumed to be going to some off-map supply base in the East.
- Any attack or defense which is supplied by sea must use a command in the East, regardless of where the target city is located.
- Example. CSA attacks from Decatur to Corinth. USA controls Grenada, Jackson and New Orleans. USA can choose to defend from the East (supplied by sea) or the West. Either way, he can retreat.
- Attacks and defenses supplied by sea are limited to a maximum of 1 leader and 2 corps (no cavalry). Exception: in USA Late War, all sea-supplied attacks and defenses (but not invasions) can be of unlimited size.
- A CSA attack on a USA-controlled port is limited to a maximum of 1 leader if the defense is being supplied by sea. When the CSA announces an attack on a port, the USA must announce whether he will supply by sea, before the CSA announces which command will attack.The USA still has the option to "wimp out" after the CSA has announced which command will attack.
- Example. CSA attacks from Pensacola to Ft Pickens. USA can choose to defend from the East, supplied by sea (in which case he is limited to 2 corps and 1 leader, unless it's Late War, but he can retreat), or from the West, unsupplied (in which case he is not limited, but he can't retreat). The USA must say whether he's supplying by sea before the CSA decides who will attack (since, if the USA is supplying by sea, the CSA can only attack with 1 leader).
- Ft Monroe is a USA supply base, so does not trace supply by sea. Therefore, attacks from or against Ft Monroe are not restricted in size.
Two cities are considered to be within 2 moves of each other if it's possible to trace a line by railroad and/or river between the cities, with not more than one intervening city. Note that, for this purpose only, the CSA can ignore riverine interdiction. Also, it doesn't matter if neither city can trace a supply line-as long as they both remain under friendly control, they provide moral support to each other!
This rule does not apply to USA-controlled ports, CSA-controlled pestholes or neutral cities.
Back to the Index.
- Example. The USA holds New Orleans, Jackson and Memphis. It then captures Vicksburg. The USA gains control of Port Hudson the instant Vicksburg falls.
How To Win
You win the game by achieving your objectives and/or stopping your opponent from achieving his. The 1864 Election is usually the watershed; read the 1864 Elections card (USA deck) carefully. The USA player must reveal this card as soon as he draws it.
Control the Mississippi. To control the Mississippi, the USA must control all of Cairo, Memphis, Vicksburg, Port Hudson and New Orleans, and have a naval squadron in the West. This is not possible until map cards C, F and I are all in play.
Establish a full blockade (see Blockade) .
Control the Shenandoah Valley.
Sever the CSA railnet (see Railnets).
Control all Atlantic ports.
Control all Gulf ports (including New Orleans).
Control any native USA city north of the original border (Washington, Baltimore, Harper's Ferry, Harrisburg, Pittsburgh, Cleveland, Toledo, Columbus, Cincinnati, Indianapolis, Centralia or Cairo). Score 1 objective for each of these cities controlled.
Sever the USA railnet (see Railnets).
Victory is determined by the "objectives total". This is the number of USA objectives currently achieved minus the number of CSA objectives currently achieved.
Objectives which have been achieved and then lost again do not count.
The USA wins by achieving an objectives total of +6.
The CSA wins in any of the following ways:
The game ends as soon as any of the above conditions has been met.
- Capture Washington.
- Reduce the objectives total to -4 at any time.
- Reduce the objectives total to -3 before the Emancipation card has been played.
- Prevent the USA having an objectives total of +4 at the time the1864 Elections card is played.
- Prevent the USA winning by the time he has used up his deck and then had one more turn (see Late-War).
-4 or if Washington is captured.
Immediate CSA Strategic Victory.
Hey, it could happen!
-3 before Emancipation.
The British intervene, break the blockade and threaten to bombard USA ports.
Immediate CSA Diplomatic Victory.
+3 or less by 1864 Elections.
McClellan elected on the platform of "peace on the basis of separation."
CSA Operational Victory.
The army has done its job. Now it's up to the fat cats and ward heelers; God help us all!
+4 or +5 by 1864 Elections.
The war continues.
+6 before 1864 Elections.
Malice towards none and charity towards all.
Immediate USA Operational Victory.
Mine eyes have seen the glory!
+5 or less after the USA has used up its deck and bonus turn.
Excessive losses destroy the USA will to continue. Border States remain in the USA.
CSA Attritional Victory.
Yankee Go Home!
+6 objectives at any point after the 1864 Elections.
Assassination. Occupation. Reconstruction. Jim Crow.
Immediate USA Attritional Victory.
"O Captain! my Captain!"
Back to the Index.
The special rules on individual cards are mostly self-explanatory. But here are some additional details for those cards that need them.
You can place this card back in your hand during Step 1 or 2 of your turn. Treat his command as if he had been dismissed (see Deploy/Move Step). You can play him again on your next turn. You don't have to play him on the very next turn. Any subsequent turn will do.
Blue Mountain Boys: Play at the start of your turn.... So you can't play it in the turn you draw it. ...but only after Emancipation. i.e. after the Emancipation Proclamation card has been played. Applies to all attacks against the listed cities in the current turn.
Dept of Washington: May (temporarily) combine strengths with one other (eligible) command. The other command does not actually become attached to the Dept of Washington (or vice versa). The two commands add their strengths for the current battle only, and both are subject to losses. The commander of the other command is treated as the commander of the combined force for all purposes (e.g. Grant's special ability). It doesn't matter if the other command has defended already, as long as it's still eligible to defend Washington.
Emancipation Proclamation: Play any time after a Rebel force is defeated (or routed) in a battle with at least 5 participating US infantry corps. Once such a battle has occurred, the card may be played at any later time. Losing a Generals' or Soldiers' Battle counts as being defeated. Inactive USA corps are not counted. Wheeling and Kentucky go pro-North if still neutral. If this is played before Map Card C, Cumberland Gap remains neutral until Map Card C is played (unless attacked). When Map Card C is subsequently played, the USA places tokens on any Kentucky cities which are still neutral.
Freedom Sickness: Play once, before announcing attacks, then discard. Must be played before any attacks have been announced in the current turn.
Grant: If combat result is Soldiers' Battle, Grant always takes (or holds) his city, even if he doesn't win the battle. If Grant is lost (killed, wounded or sacked) while attacking, he does not take the target city, but, if he's lost while defending, he still holds the target city on a Soldiers' Battle. Capacity: 2xxxx + 1xxx. Grant may lead 2 armies, a corps and a cavalry unit. He may not lead 2 armies and 2 cavalry units, since each cavalry unit after the first counts as an army against a USA leader's capacity.
Infernal Machines: Additionally, opponent must deplete or eliminate 1 involved division of his choice. A full strength division is depleted; a depleted division is placed in cadre.
John Brown's Body: Play any time. May be played during a battle, but only up until the time the dice are rolled.
Monitor: Nullifies CSA Ironclads card. Nullifies Ironclads regardless of which card is played first. Norfolk is automatically occupied by USA forces. Simply place a USA token on Norfolk (if there isn't one there already). Can be used as a blockading naval unit. Counts as a naval squadron in the East for purposes of the blockade, but has no other abilities of a naval squadron.
Old Abe: Western Theater Only. This card may be played if, and only if, the target city is in the West, regardless of which theater the attacking and defending commands are in.
Provisional Corps/Reserve Corps: Does not require leadership. If attached to a leader, does not count against his capacity. May not attack without leadership. If the corps survives....restore up to 3....corps at the end of your turn. If you play the card during your opponent's turn (as a reserve or defense from hand), then it's discarded at the end of his turn, so you don't get to restore any corps.
Sheridan: Sheridan can command 3 infantry corps. In this role, Sheridan is still a cavalry unit, and not a leader. For example, he cannot be killed or dismissed. While commanding infantry, he cannot have a cavalry unit attached to him.
Special Orders No. 191: Play just after a CSA attack on native Northern soil. This means an attack on any native USA city. Play after the attack has been completed. Next turn, +1 to combat die roll on one attack vs an occupied native USA city. The USA gets +1 to the red die if he attacks a native USA city currently controlled by the CSA.
Swamp Angel: amphibious attack = invasion.
VIII Corps: May only be assigned to the Dept of Washington or must remain alone. While alone, it can still receive naval support from a naval squadron and make an invasion led by a naval squadron, since it won't be attached to the squadron.
XVI Corps: Acts as cavalry for preventing supply raids if deployed alone in the Western Theater. (In this role, it can "pair up" with 1 other cavalry.) In a cavalry pair, the XVI Corps may be either the leading unit or the attached unit. In either case, it acts just like a cavalry unit, so it can attack (with an initiative of 0), raid, etc. While alone, the XVI Corps cannot attack or raid; it counts as infantry for all purposes except defending against raids. 2 steps but only 1 combat value if depleted. It has 1 strength point if depleted.
You can place this card back in your hand during Step 1 or 2 of your turn. Treat his command as if he had been dismissed (see Deploy/Move Step). You can play him again on your next turn. You don't have to play him on the very next turn. Any subsequent turn will do.
Copperheads: CSA gets a free turn (with no attacks allowed). CSA may not raid during its free turn.
Degataga: Divert 1 undepleted Union corps (USA choice)... The corps must be one in play, and not XXII Corps (which must remain attached to Dept of Washington). If the USA has no such corps available, he ignores this instruction.
Digging For The South: Restore, for free, one unit at the start of each turn (starting now). Restore a depleted unit for free at the start of your own turn only (not USA turn too). Don't restore a unit for free on the turn you play this card, unless you play it at the very start of your turn (before drawing cards). Replace this card if you can't use it. If Freedom Sickness has already been played, discard this card from your hand and draw another one; you don't get control of Wheeling.
Draft Riots: Play just after any battle in which there are 4 or more total Northern losses. This means 4 or more steps actually removed. If the combat result called for 4 losses but there were only 3 steps in the command, the condition is not met. The card may be played in either player's turn. Union must permanently discard an undepleted corps of at least 3 strength from his hand or the board (his choice). If the USA has no such corps available, he ignores this instruction. The corps cannot come from cadre and may not be XXII Corps (which must be attached to Dept of Washington).
Forrest: 2-step cavalry unit (like infantry). When depleted, Forrest has a strength of 1, like a CSA division.
Ironclads: Discard if nullified by Monitor (USA). If Monitor is played first, Ironclads is discarded as soon as it's played, and the CSA receives no free steps. It still has the effect of stopping Monitor counting as a naval squadron for blockade. Restore 1 free step per turn. Restore one extra depleted unit for free any time during your turn. This may be during a battle, but only up until the time the dice are rolled.
Jackson: Can rejoin a command to defend. Jackson may attach to any defending commander in the same theater (subject to normal leadership restrictions), but only if he is still eligible to defend the target city. This happens before adding reserves.
Partisan Rangers: Draw 2 free cards and get 1 free supply. Play any time. If you have less than 2 cards remaining in your deck, the excess draw(s) are wasted. You may not take supplies or cards from cadre instead.
Pemberton: Cannot be replaced from cadre. If he would normally go to cadre, put him in the dead pile instead.
The Slows: Play against any Union commander when he announces an attack. This reduces his initiative by 1 (for purposes of combat die roll, this combat, only). In other words, his initiative is reduced for purposes of resolving a Generals' Battle (it doesn't effect the die roll). If his initiative goes below 0, the attack is canceled. For this purpose, a naval squadron leading an invasion is considered to have an initiative greater than 0, i.e. it can still attack, but remember that invasions led by a naval squadron always result in a stalemate on a Generals' or Soldiers' battle.
All combat additions/subtractions (+1, -1, etc) are modifiers to the red die roll only. Once a card has been played, any indicated modifiers must be used; you can't choose to ignore them. Also, if you wish to affect the die roll you must play the card before the dice have been rolled.
Some Enigma™ cards are marked Play as a reserve. These are played in battle, in lieu of adding a reserve card.
The special abilities of Bragg, Hooker and Grant are only used when they are acting as commanders, not subordinates.
Cards with the directive WESTERN THEATER ONLY or EASTERN THEATER ONLY must always remain in the indicated theater, regardless of whether you're playing Optional Rule 1.
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These rules increase both the realism and the complexity of the game. Use only if both players agree. (N) = helps the USA; (S) = helps the CSA; + = helps a lot.
- Theater Deployment. Strongly recommended. You can only play a unit to its home theater, as indicated by the word EAST or WEST next to the card number. (Units marked EAST-WEST can be played to either theater.) Once played, a unit can move between theaters normally. When taking a card from cadre, you can ignore this rule, providing you play it in the immediately following Deploy/Move Step.
- Cumberland Gap. (S) If any city in neutral Kentucky (including Cumberland Gap) is attacked, roll a die. 1-3: USA gains control of Cumberland Gap, 4-6: CSA gains control. On a roll of 4-6, repeat the die roll at the start of the attacker's next turn (do not roll more than twice). Whatever the result, the other cities of Kentucky still join the attacker's opponent. Regardless of how Kentucky enters the war, Cumberland Gap always surrenders immediately if Knoxville and Lexington are both enemy-controlled.
- Fort Monroe. (S+) USA can't attack from Ft Monroe unless there are no CSA-controlled cities adjacent to Washington.
- Cavalry Losses. (N) Until Late-War, all cavalry units go to cadre face-down. Turn them face-up on your next turn.
- Trans-Mississippi. (N+) Control of the Mississippi is worth 2 objectives to the USA, instead of the usual 1, unless the CSA has sent two leaders and one undepleted infantry division to the "Trans-Mississippi Theater" (i.e. removed them from the game permanently). The CSA may only do this in his Deploy/Move Step, and only while the USA does not control the the Mississippi. Both leaders must have an initiative of 2 in both attack and defense, but one of them can be taken from cadre (face-up only). [Historically, the leaders were Price and Kirby Smith.]
- Political favor. (N+) Recommended. No leader with political disfavor may have as many cards under him at any time as any leader with political favor in the same theater. For this purpose, count all a leader's subordinate leaders and units (including units under his subordinates), active or inactive. You may never deliberately violate this restriction. Should it be violated by events outside your control (e.g. casualties in battle), then excess cards must be immediately detached from the disfavored leader or his subordinates. [This rule can (and should) complicate Stonewall Jackson's role in the game. Normally, he can attach at leisure to any eligible army, but this rule can prevent Jackson from joining disfavored leaders in many cases.]
- Isolation. If the defender in a battle cannot trace a supply line to a supply base in the theater he is defending from, then he can't add any reserves. If the attacker is bypassing an enemy city (using an initiative 2 commander), then he can't add any reserves. In addition, the USA can't add reserves to any battle (attack or defense) that is supplied by sea (including invasions), even during Late-War, and can't defend from his hand. However, in these situations players can still withdraw cards, and can still play those Enigma cards that must be played as reserves.
- The Middle Dept. (N) During USA Late-War, USA VIII Corps, if not attached to the Dept of Washington, may add its strength to any command's attack against or defense of the Shenandoah Valley. VIII Corps is attached to the command for the duration of the battle, and counts against a leader's capacity. After the battle, VIII Corps returns to being a lone unit.
- Garrisons. (S) USA VII Corps can't attack. It may only defend. USA IV Corps can't attack until USA Late-War. [Use them to defend your ports.]
- Political Generals. (N) USA can buy corps out of cadre (for 1 supply point each) during Step 5 of his turn, providing these corps are immediately attached to McClellan or Banks. For this purpose, you can deploy and attach the corps in Step 5, contrary to the usual turn sequence, and can ignore the theater deployment restrictions of Optional Rule 1.
- Deathride. If the combat result is Defender Routed and the attacking commander is not sacked, the attacker takes the city, even if the commander is killed or wounded.
- The Atlantic "Theater". Forces fighting in a sea-supplied bridgehead cannot be instantly transferred to other parts of the Eastern Theater.
- If a USA command attacks while supplied by sea (or from Ft Monroe), then, on the following CSA turn, that command can only defend cities which are connected to the port (or Ft Monroe) from which the attack was supplied.
- Example. Banks attacks from Pensacola and takes Montgomery. During the next CSA turn, Banks can only defend Pensacola, Montgomery or Ft Pickens. He could not defend, say, Harper's Ferry or New Berne that turn.
- If a USA command makes a successful invasion, then, on the following CSA turn, that command can only defend the invaded port or cities which are connected to it. If the invasion was unsuccessful, then the command cannot defend at all.
- If a USA command defends while supplied by sea (or from Ft Monroe), then, on the following USA turn, that command can only attack a city connected to the port (or Ft Monroe) from which the defense was supplied.
- A city is considered to be connected to the port in question if they are connected by a chain of adjacent, friendly cities at the start of the turn.
- To remind you that a command is subject to one of these restrictions, place a token it.
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As an alternative to the standard rules, you can play "historically".
- Both players initially deploy their cards as shown in the table below.
- The USA player may not play any cards (including reserves) on his first turn and must make an attack.
- The CSA player may not attack on his first turn.
- Each card is numbered. Instead of shuffling, arrange both decks in numerical order!
- Don't put Late-War cards on the bottom of the deck when you first draw them. Instead, Late-War starts immediately (for your side) when you draw your first Late-War card.
USA Eastern Theater
- DEPT. OF WASH. [#4]
- McDOWELL [#8]
- PORTER [#5]
USA Western Theater
- Devil's Own Luck [#3]
- Habeas Corpus [#6]
USA Supply = 1
CSA Eastern Theater
- BEAUREGARD [#6]
- Pickett's Div [#7]
- Ewell's Div [#10]
- J.E. JOHNSTON [#8]
CSA Western Theater (None)
- Miracle from God [#3]
- Tidewater Militia [#4]
- La Belle Rebelle [#5]
CSA Supply = 0
- Gettysburg Scenario
- This is another historical scenario. Full details can be found on USA Rules Cards #R37-#R44.
- The following detail was omitted from the cards: Cumberland Gap is controlled by the CSA at the start of the scenario.
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You bear the burden of the attack, so here is some friendly advice. If the front lines don't change, you lose. The question is where to attack? Your best bet is usually Winfield Scott's "Anaconda Plan," which drew scorn but in the end proved to be the winning strategy.
For the first several turns, draw lots of cards until you have a considerably bigger army than the Rebels. Then pour on the pressure. Move forward, especially in the West. Drive down the Mississippi to cut Rebel production, then move on Atlanta. Once this is accomplished, cut the Southern railnet. If the Rebels concentrate on one theater, seize the ports in the other. In the East, seize the Shenandoah if you can, to avoid Belle Boyd and protect your railnet. Try to take the Wilderness to cover Washington, and Lynchburg to "fork" Richmond and Petersburg.
Do not get distracted. Concentrate on your objectives and on the clock. Strangle the CSA sea lanes; occupy its ports if the opportunity presents itself. When you gather and organize sufficient might, rend the South asunder and dance on her grave. Vast resources (despite ineffective leadership) give you an even chance of winning, but the pressure of the offensive must continuously dominate your thinking. You've got to push, push, push!
On account of the Yankees outnumber you, here's some friendly advice. Time is on your side. You must seize the opportunities the Yankee presents. Counterattack, disrupt his communications, raid his supply lines. Hang in there. Seriously consider invading the North (hint: think "Harrisburg") if at any time your foe is disorganized and weakened. Do not be deceived by the greater number of cards in your deck. The weakest Yankee corps are as strong as your finest divisions. However, you will probably need less supply than he will and that is an advantage. Don't put all your forces in one theater-he'll just seize the empty ports and you can't afford that. Your cutting edge is superior leadership. Your secondary advantage is cavalry. Use it.
Eastern Theater: Dominate the Wilderness if at all possible. Not only is it your route to the Shenandoah (and points north), but the Federals might get behind Richmond. If Richmond does fall, you can afford to trade space for time.
Western Theater: Defend western Tennessee (but don't make a cult of it). Fight him for Grenada and Jackson. Try to hold Chattanooga, at least until the locals turn surly. Then slam shut the true gateways to the South: Vicksburg and Atlanta. Better yet, kill him before he multiplies. Soft Route North: play or seize Kentucky and strike at his soft underbelly, avoiding Cairo.
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Copyright 1999 Q.E.D. Games, Inc. All rights reserved. BLUE vs GRAY: THE CIVIL WAR CARD GAME and the term ENIGMA are TM Evan Jones.