Unofficial rewrite by Richard Wein

Last updated September 14, 1999


1. An active (face-up) unit or leader can participate in battles.
2. An active Enigma card is one which is still in effect (indicated by a token on the card).
add reserves
Play one or more units from your hand directly to an existing command during combat.
Any two cities are considered adjacent if they are directly connected by a railroad or river (with no intervening city). You can switch railroads at a junction, so, for example, Centralia is adjacent to Indianapolis. (Exception: riverine interdiction.)
amphibious attack
= invasion
For the USA, an army is any command or subcommand led by an Army Commander (or an Army-Group Commander acting as a subordinate). For the CSA, an army is any command led by an Army Commander. For purposes of showing a leader's capacity, armies are represented by the symbol xxxx.
An army-group is any command led by an Army-Group Commander. Only the USA has army-groups.
= attach
Atlantic Coast ports
The Atlantic Coast ports are: Savannah, Charleston/Ft Sumter, Wilmington, New Berne, Norfolk, Ft Monroe and Baltimore.
All cards marked AT START should be taken from the decks before shuffling them. They begin the game on the board or in players' hands.
Place an existing command under a leader, as an attached unit or subcommand.
A unit or subcommand which is under a leader is considered to be attached to that leader, whether it got there by attaching, transferring, adding reserves or by replacement of a previous leader.
An attempt to capture an enemy held city. The attacking player (attacker) announces the attack by naming an eligible command, as well as the target. (For example, the attacker might declare the attack by saying "Grant attacks Richmond. Are you defending?")
automatic surrender
A city surrenders automatically (becomes controlled by the other side) if it has no other friendly city within 2 moves of it, i.e. connected by railroad and/or river with at most one intervening city. Exceptions: USA-controlled ports, CSA-controlled pestholes and neutral cities.


Each attack results in a battle, unless the defender decides to "wimp out". The battle is resolved by rolling the dice and consulting the Combat Card.
A full or partial blockade is automatically in effect whenever the USA meets certain conditions. See the rules under Blockade (Step 1).
The playing area, typically a table top, where cards are laid out and the game takes place. "Play cards to the board" means to take cards from your hand and place them on the playing surface.


The military term "cadre" refers to units with severe losses but intact command structures. In the game, units which are lost in battle go to a pile of cards known as "cadre". Later they can be rebuilt from cadre (represented by taking the card back into your hand). Leaders also go to cadre, when they are wounded, sacked or dismissed. In your Draw/Replace Step (Step 1), you can take any face-up card from cadre back into your hand, instead of drawing a card from your deck. Units go to cadre face-up. Leaders go to cadre face-down, and are turned face-up at the end of your next Draw/Replace Step (Step 1). Cadre is different from the dead pile, from which there is no return.
Each leader has a specified number of units and/or subcommands he can lead. This number appears on his card inside a flag icon. Some leaders can lead fewer units when they are subordinates than when they are commanders; in this case, the number in the flag at the bottom of the card is less than in the flag in the upper left.
card number
Each card is numbered (#1, #2, etc), but the numbers only matter when playing a historical scenario, which is played with the deck in numerical order. Rules cards are numbered beginning with an R (#R1, #R2, #R3, etc).
The white die of the combat die roll determines casualties, or losses due to battle. A 1, 2 or 3 results in Light casualties; a 4 or 5 results in Normal casualties; a 6 results in Heavy casualties. Look at the Casualties Table at the bottom of the Combat Card (#R31) to determine the actual number of steps to be lost.
cavalry pair
An independent command, formed by attaching one cavalry unit to another, lone cavalry unit. This is the only case in which one unit can attach to another one.
cavalry raid
An action undertaken during the Combat Step (Step 3), when a player with "free cavalry" chooses to raid his opponent's accumulated supply points. It does not cost any supply points to conduct a cavalry raid, which is not considered either an attack or combat.
cavalry unit
A card representing a unit of mounted troops, with the special ability to conduct cavalry raids and defend against cavalry raids. Unlike infantry units, cavalry units can attack on their own and can pair up to form a cavalry pair. A cavalry unit cannot be attached to a low-level leader, or a subordinate leader (whatever his rank). A high-level leader can lead one cavalry unit for free, but each additional one counts against his capacity.
The term "city" includes ports, forts, and pestholes.
In the Combat Step (Step 3), a player can make attacks and conduct a cavalry raid. Attacks are considered to be combat, but cavalry raids are not.
Combat Card
Rules Card #R31 (one in each deck).
One or more cards (units and leaders) arranged together on the board, but separate from other commands, able to attack and defend as a single entity. A lone unit is a command by itself. A subcommand is not a command. For more details, see the rules under Leadership.
Any card which is leading a command. This could be any of the following: a leader card, a lone cavalry unit, the leading unit in a cavalry pair or a naval squadron leading an invasion. A subordinate leader is not considered a commander. Neither is a lone infantry unit.
Cities begin the game controlled by one side or the other, or neutral, as indicated by the color of the lettering on the map. A player gains control of a city when (a) he captures it an attack, (b) it surrenders automatically, or (c) his opponent attacks a neutral city. He then places one of his tokens (blue or yellow) on the city, to show he controls it. Exception: when you regain control of one of your native cities, just remove your opponent's token from it; there's no need to place one of your own.
For the USA, a corps is an infantry unit, represented by a single card. For the CSA, a corps is any command or subcommand led by a Corps Commander (or an Army Commander acting as a subordinate). For the purpose of showing a leader's capacity, corps are represented by the symbol xxx.


dead pile
The pile where you put any cards permanently removed from the game, including dead leaders, discarded Enigma cards, and replaced map cards. We suggest placing the pile to the player's right, and placing cards in such a way that both players can see which cards are in the pile.
The pile of face-down, unplayed cards from which you draw.
A command is considered defeated in battle if the Combat Card indicates that it has been defeated or routed, or if the other side wins a Generals' or Soldiers' Battle.
When your opponent attacks a city (for example "Grant attacks Richmond. Do you defend?"), you may attempt to stop him capturing the city by choosing an eligible command and declaring, for example, "Lee will defend Richmond."
defend from hand
When attacked, a player can play an infantry or cavalry unit from his hand to form a new command, and then defend with that command (but not if the target city is being supplied by sea).
As a result of casualties, an infantry unit may become depleted. USA corps and CSA divisions each have two steps; if they lose 1 step, they are considered depleted. (If they lose 2 steps, they go to cadre.) All USA corps have a strength of 2 when depleted. A CSA division with a regular strength of 2 or more has a strength of 1 when depleted; a CSA division with a regular strength of 1 has a strength of 0 when depleted, but can still fight. A unit is shown as being depleted by rotating it 90.
Play a unit, leader or naval squadron from your hand to the board, thus forming new command (except in the case of naval squadrons, which are never part of a command).
Separate a unit or subcommand from its leader, to form a new command.
Special directions on specific cards. Directives on a card supersede general rules.
Remove from play permanently (place in the dead pile).
A leader with political disfavor is disgraced (permanently removed from the game) if he is routed while a commander (not a subordinate), or if he is sacked at any time.
Remove a leader from his position and place him face-down in cadre (regardless of political disfavor). You can replace him with a leader from your hand or from elsewhere in the same theater, or not replace him at all.
CSA infantry unit. For the purpose of showing a leader's capacity, divisions are represented by the symbol xx.
Map cards marked DO NOT PLAY are for reference only, and should be removed from the decks before the start of the game. If you forget to do so, and draw one during the game, remove it from the game and draw another card to replace it.
draw a card
Take a card from the top of your deck (not from cadre).


The Eastern Theater, consisting of all cities east of the Appalachians Mountains and the Georgia/South Carolina border (defined by a black line on the map), including the Shenandoah Valley and Savannah. For the USA player that will be to his left; for the CSA player it will be to his right.
An enemy city is one controlled by your opponent.
A type of card which represents unique political, social, and technological events of the War.


Cities which are fortified are noted with an X through their symbol on the map cards. When attacking a fort, subtract 1 from the red die roll. A fort gives its combat advantage to whichever side is defending it, not only the original owner.
free cavalry
All cavalry units which are not attached to a leader, i.e. lone cavalry units and those in cavalry pairs. Only free cavalry may make cavalry raids or defend against cavalry raids.
free transfer
Even though the rules say a unit or subcommand may not detach and reattach in the same Deploy/Move Step (Step 2), every player gets one free transfer per turn, where he may violate this rule.
A city is friendly to the player who controls it.


Generals' Battle
If the Combat Card indicates that a Soldiers' Battle has occurred, the side with the higher initiative wins the battle. If both sides have the same initiative, the result is a stalemate. (Note: only the initiative of the commander counts, not the initiative of any subordinates.)
Gulf Coast ports
New Orleans, Ft Pickens, Pensacola, Ft Morgan and Mobile.


Cards which you draw from your deck or take from cadre are held in your hand until you choose to play them (except certain cards which must be played or replaced immediately). You shouldn't let your opponent see which cards you have in your hand, although he's entitled to know how many cards you have.
high-level leader
High-level leaders are Army-Group Commanders (for the USA) and Army Commanders (for the CSA). They can lead infantry, cavalry and subordinate leaders. They can also act as subordinate leaders themselves (unless marked WON'T SUBORDINATE ), in which case they are treated as low-level leaders.


Face-down cards in play are inactive. An inactive unit or leader is not counted when resolving a battle. An inactive naval squadron has no effect on play.
independent command
A command with no subordinate leaders.
infantry unit
A card representing foot soldiers, organized in corps (USA) and divisions (CSA). Most of the units in the game are infantry.
Each leader and cavalry unit has an initiative value (0, 1 or 2), in the upper left of the card, surrounded by a gold wreath. If two values are shown, use the top one when attacking and the bottom one when defending.
in play
A card that has been placed on the board is considered in play. (Exception: cards in cadre or the dead pile are not "in play.")
A special attack on a port, from the sea. Only the USA can make invasions, and only one per turn.


jumping-off city
The city from which an attack is launched.


A leader is killed when so indicated by the Leader Losses Table. He is permanently removed from play (goes to the dead pile).


The final phase of the game. Cards marked LATE-WAR are only playable once that player's Late-War phase begins, which may occur on a different turn for each player. Until then, they must be placed on the bottom of the deck, and another card drawn instead.
Leaders are represented by cards with a flag and a capacity rating (e.g. 3xxx). Cavalry and naval squadrons are not leaders, even though they have a limited leadership ability.
Leader Losses Table
This table is located on the Combat Card.
leading cavalry unit
The top unit in a cavalry pair (the one which has the other one attached to it) is considered to be the commander, but it is still not a leader.
You lose a battle when the Combat Card says that you are defeated or routed, or that the other side wins in a Generals' or Soldiers' Battle.
low-level leader
Low-level leaders are Army Commanders (for the USA) and Corps Commanders (for the CSA). They can lead only infantry units.


map cards
Map cards (lettered A-K) provide the map on which the game is played. Most map cards come in 2 versions, one in the USA deck and one in the CSA deck. If you're holding a map card of which another version has already been played, it is useless. You must remove it from play, and you may (but don't have to) draw a replacement card.
modified die roll
A variety of factors may modify the red die roll in a battle, from playing an Enigma card like Old Abe or Rebel Yell to attacking/defending a fort.
Commands aren't located on the map in any particular city, and so there is no movement between cities as such. Instead commands are simply located in the Eastern or Western Theater. They can attack from or defend any city which can trace a supply line to the theater where they're located (see the rules on Supply Lines for details). Cards can be moved from one theater to the other in the Deploy/Move Step (Step 2) and the Reorganization Step (Step 4).


native city
Native cities are designated by blue lettering on the map cards for the USA, and brown lettering for the CSA. When the rules refer to native cities, they mean native cities which are still under the control of the original owner (unless the context specifically indicates otherwise).
naval squadron
USA only. A naval squadron is not a unit or a leader, and cannot go to cadre or be removed from play. It has a strength which can be added to attacks/defenses of ports, and a limited leadership ability: it can lead a single corps in an invasion.
naval support
When a naval squadron adds its strength to the attack or defense of a port, this is referred to as naval support.
A neutral city is one controlled by neither player. Cities named in black lettering, outlined in white, on the map cards, start the game neutral. Once attacked (or, in the case of cities in Kentucky, when any city of Kentucky is attacked), they cease to be neutral.
Attacks are not allowed along railroads marked NO ATTACKS on the map.


= controlled


pair up
Two cavalry units can pair up to form a cavalry pair, which is an independent command.
Defensive locations under Southern control, typically thickly wooded or swampy areas (or just plain unfriendly). Pestholes are cities, shown on the map as a small circle within a larger one (for example, the Shenandoah Valley). They give the following benefits to the CSA: +5 is added to the strength of a CSA command defending a pesthole; a CSA command can always retreat from a pesthole; a CSA-controlled pesthole never surrenders automatically. USA-controlled pestholes are treated as normal cities.
political disfavor
Some leader cards are marked POLITICAL DISFAVOR. A leader with political disfavor is disgraced (permanently removed from the game) if he is routed while a commander (not a subordinate), or if he is sacked at any time.
political favor
Some leader cards are marked POLITICAL FAVOR. This has no effect unless you're using Optional Rule 6.
Ports are shown as squares on the map cards, along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts. The USA can invade ports, use naval support there and supply them by sea. Note: despite its name, Port Hudson is not a port.


= cavalry raid
rail movement
In your Deploy/Move Step (Step 2), you can move one command from one theater to the other by rail movement. These cards arrive immediately but may not attack in the same turn.
A network of friendly cities, each of which is connected to each of the others by a chain of adjacent friendly cities. Severing your opponent's railnet can reduce the number of cards he can draw and counts as an objective towards victory conditions. See the rules under Railnet (Step 1).
Any red line on the map (solid or dotted) is treated as a railroad for the purpose of the rules, although, in reality, the dotted lines represent roads.
In the Regroup Step (Step 5), a player may restore depleted units to full strength at a cost of 1 supply point per 3 steps restored (left-over steps are lost).
If you haven't attacked or raided in your Combat Step (Step 3), you may conduct a reorganization in your Reorganization Step (Step 4), by spending 1 supply point. This allows you to freely rearrange all your units, leaders and naval squadrons in play, including moving them between theaters.
Units added to a battle before the dice are rolled and combat is resolved.
During his Draw/Replace Step (Step 1) and his Regroup Step (Step 5), a player may restore depleted units to full strength at a cost of 1 supply point per 3 steps restored (left-over steps are lost). In Step 1, he may also be allowed to restore one or more units for free.
When a city is captured, the defender must retreat. Retreating doesn't involve any movement. However, if the defender is unable to retreat, his entire command is wiped out: all units go to cadre and leaders are sacked. For how to determine whether a command can retreat, see the rules under Supply Lines.
Blue lines on map cards are rivers.
riverine interdiction
If the USA has a naval squadron in the West, then two cities connected only by river are not considered adjacent for the CSA, even if the USA doesn't yet have a connection to that part of the river. This applies for all purposes except for avoiding automatic surrender.
A rout may be indicated by the Combat Card. This is the same as a defeat, except that (a) the winning side loses 1 step less than indicated by the Casualties Table or the losing side loses 1 extra step (winner's choice which); (b) the routed commander is disgraced (permanently removed from play) if he has political disfavor.
rules cards
Cards #R1 through #R33 (in both decks) outline the rules of the game. In addition, the USA deck has cards #R35 through #R43, which provide historical information and a Gettysburg Scenario.


A leader is sacked (a) when so indicated by the Leader Losses Table, (b) if he is left with no cards (active or inactive) attached to him at any time during the Combat Step, or (c) if the command he is in is unable to retreat when required to do so. A sacked leader goes to cadre (face-down), unless he is politically disfavored, in which case he is permanently removed from play.
set aside
When the instructions on an Enigma card tell you to set it aside, place it in any convenient place on the board, and put one of your tokens on top to remind you that it's still active.
sever a railnet
Severing your opponent's railnet can reduce the number of cards he can draw and counts as an objective towards victory conditions. See the rules under Railnet (Step 1).
Soldiers' Battles
If the Combat Card indicates that a Soldiers' Battle has occurred, the side with the higher total strength wins the battle, providing its strength exceeds the enemy's by at least 5 points. If neither side is 5 points stronger than the other, the result is a stalemate.
special rule
A unique rule printed directly on a card which dictates an action that conflicts with a general rule. The card's special rule always takes precedence.
split initiative
When a leader card lists two initiative numbers, the one above is used when attacking and the one below when defending.
If the Combat Card indicates that the result is a stalemate (in a Generals' or Soldiers' Battle), then there is no winner or loser in that battle.
1. Infantry and cavalry casualties are taken in steps. Unless otherwise noted, infantry units have two steps and cavalry units have one (leaders do not have steps). A two-step unit which has lost one step is considered depleted, and a unit with has lost all its steps goes to cadre.
2. Each player's turn is divided into 5 steps. See "turn".
Infantry units, cavalry units, naval squadrons and leaders have a strength value, shown in the upper left and lower right corners of the card inside a bullet symbol. A depleted unit has a lower strength value than indicated on the card. The combined strength value of all active cards involved in a battle is used to determine possible die roll modifiers and the outcome of Soldiers' Battles.
Part of a command, consisting of a subordinate leader and all the units attached to him.
A leader who is under the command of another leader. A subordinate cannot have subordinates of his own.
supply base
For the USA, a supply base is any native USA city (except Ft Pickens, Pensacola, and New Berne). For the CSA, a supply base is any native CSA city adjacent to another friendly city (which need not be a native city). Supply lines must be traced to a supply base. A city which is being supplied by sea is considered to be tracing a supply line to an off-map supply base in the East.
Supply Card
Rules Card #R33. Use a token on your Supply Card to record your current supply point total. For example, a token on the circle marked "5" indicates that you currently own 5 supply points. There is no limit to the number of supply points you can accumulate. If your supply point total exceeds 6, use a second token to indicate the additional points.
supply line
A supply line is traced from a friendly city back to a supply base, through a chain of adjacent friendly cities, by railroad and/or river. A city which is a supply base is considered to be tracing a supply line to itself. A city which is being supplied by sea is considered to be tracing a supply line to an off-map supply base in the East.
supply point
Supply points can be spent to make attacks, restore depleted units and conduct a reorganization. They can be saved indefinitely, or cashed in for extra cards. Each player records his current supply point total on his Supply Card.
supply raid
= cavalry raid


target city
The city which is the object of the current attack.
The map is divided into two theaters: East and West. Units, leaders and naval squadrons are always located in one theater or the other, and this restricts where they can attack and defend (see the rules on Supply Lines). You can only move cards from one theater to the other during Step 2 (Deploy/Move) or Step 4 (Reorganize).
The circular cardboard counters, 3 CSA and 12 USA, included with each deck. They are used for marking control of cities, active Enigma cards and each player's supply point total. A normal game requires two sets of tokens (6 for the CSA and 24 for the USA). In the unlikely event that you run out of tokens, you may use any convenient items, such as coins, as additional tokens.
Move a unit or subcommand directly from one leader to another.
Each turn consists of one player conducting the following steps: Step 1 (Draw/Replace), Step 2 (Deploy/Move), Step 3 (Combat), Step 4 (Reorganization), Step 5 (Regroup).


A card is considered to be under the leader (if any) to which it is attached. The physical card is positioned lower on the board (towards its owner) than its leader's card, though which card overlaps the other is a matter of personal preference.
A single card of any of the following types: cavalry (either side), infantry division (CSA) or infantry corps (USA). Naval squadrons and leaders are not units.


= win


The Western Theater, consisting of all cities west of the Appalachians Mountains and the Georgia/South Carolina border (defined by a black line on the map). For the USA player that will be to his right; for the CSA player it will be to his left.
wimp out
When a defender chooses not to (or can't) oppose an attack on one of his cities. The attacker still spends a supply point, but captures the city without a battle.
You win a battle when the Combat Card says that your opponent is defeated or routed, or that your side wins in a Generals' or Soldiers' Battle. If the attacker wins but fails to capture the target city, he is still considered the winner.
wiped out
A command is considered wiped out if all its remaining units (active and inactive) are sent to cadre. All surviving leaders are sacked.
During combat, when a player has the opportunity to add a reserve, he may instead choose to withdraw a unit, turning it face-down so it becomes inactive.
A leader is wounded when so indicated by the Leader Losses Table. A wounded leader goes to cadre (face-down).


The military shorthand symbol for a division.
The military shorthand symbol for a corps.
The military shorthand symbol for an army.